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Modern history is the history of the world beginning after the Middle Ages. Generally the term "modern history" refers to the history of the world since the advent of the Age of Reason and the Age of Enlightenment in the 17th and 18th centuries and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.
- (Europe, 18th century – 20th century)
- (Europe 18th and 19th centuries) , 1799–1815 (United Kingdom, 1837–1901) (United Kingdom, 1901–1910) (Japan, 1868–1912) (Earth, 1914–1918) (Earth, 1918–1939*) (Earth, 1939*–1945) (Soviet Union and United States, as well as Earth, 1945–1989) (Russia, after 1991)
- The Early Modern Times lasted from the end of the 15th century to the Industrial Revolution at the end of the 18th century,  circa 1450/92 to 1750/92.
- Modern Times are the period from Enlightenment and the 18th century until today.
- Modernity, based on Modernism, explores the changes of society due to the industrialization.
- Postmodernity and Postindustrialism are theories to apply the art movement term of postmodernism (below) to social and cultural history, or to refer to the rise of the service sector during the late 20th century when industry was no longer predominant the prefix "post-" implies a reaction to modernity and in that sense does not cover all contemporary history. 
The modern period has been a time of many advances in science, politics, warfare, technology, and globalization. During this time, the European powers began expanding their political, economic, and cultural influences to the rest of the world.
The Modern Age - History
The Church continues to make Christ present in human history. In the history of the Church, we find the divine and the human closely intertwined.
The Church continues to make Christ present in human history. In the history of the Church, we find the divine and the human closely intertwined.
The Modern Age opens with the arrival of Christopher Columbus in America, an event which, along with the explorations in Africa and Asia, began the European colonization of other regions in the world. The Church took advantage of this historical event to spread the Gospel in continents outside Europe. Missions arose in the French colonies of Canada and Louisiana in North America, in Spanish America, in Portuguese Brazil, in the Congo, India, Indochina, China, Japan and the Philippines. To coordinate these endeavors for spreading the faith, the Holy See in 1622 instituted the Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide .
Meanwhile, the Church was entering the grave crisis of the “Reformation” initiated by Martin Luther, Ulrich Zwingli, and John Calvin (all founders of different denominations of Protestantism), along with the schism provoked by Henry VIII, king of
England (Anglicanism). This resulted in the separation from the Church of a large part of the world: Scandinavia, Estonia and Lithuania, part of Germany, Holland, half of Switzerland, Scotland, England, besides their respective colonial territories already possessed or subsequently conquered (Canada, North America, the Antilles, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand). The Protestant Reformation had the damaging effect of breaking up the long-standing religious unity in the western Christian world, and caused the various states to become confessional. It thereby brought about the social, political and cultural division of Europe and some of its dependent regions into two camps, Catholic and Protestant. This situation crystallized in the formula, cuius regio, eius et religio , according to which the subjects of each region were obliged to follow the religion of their respective rulers. Confrontation between these two worlds led to the wars of religion, which especially affected France, the German territories, England, Scotland, and Ireland. Hostilities in this conflict ended only with the Peace of Westphalia (1648) on the continent, and with the capitulation of Limerick (1692) in the British Isles.
Although deeply wounded by the defection of so many people in so few decades, the Catholic Church was able to draw upon unsuspected interior reserves to react and begin carrying out an authentic reform. This historical process came to be known as the Counter-Reformation., whose high point was the Council of Trent (1545-1563). There some dogmatic truths were clearly proclaimed that had been placed in doubt by the Protestants, such as the canon of Scripture, the sacraments, justification, and original sin. Disciplinary measures were also taken that strengthened and consolidated the Church, for example, the establishment of seminaries, and the obligation of residency in the diocese for bishops. The efforts of the Counter-Reformation were assisted by many religious orders in the sixteenth century. These were initiatives of reform by the mendicant Capuchins and Discalced Carmelites, and institutes of regular clerics, Jesuits, Theatines, Barnabites, etc. The Church thus emerged from the crisis deeply renewed and strengthened, and was able to make up for the loss of some European regions with a truly universal growth, thanks to the work in the missions.
In the eighteenth century, the Church had to fight two enemies: “royalism” and the enlightenment. The first was closely tied to the development of absolute monarchy. Supported by the organization of a modern bureaucracy, the European sovereigns established a system of total, autocratic power, eliminating the barriers that had formerly been present, namely, the institutions of medieval origin such as the feudal system, ecclesiastical privileges, the rights of cities, etc. In this effort to centralize power, the Catholic monarchs often infringed on ecclesiastical jurisdiction in striving to create a Church submissive to the power of the king. This process took on different names, depending on the particular country concerned: “royalism” in Portugal and Spain, Galicanism in France, Josephism in the Hapsburg territories of Austria, Bohemia, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia, Lombardy, Tuscany, Belgium, and “jurisdictionalism” in Naples and Para. It reached its zenith with the expulsion of the Jesuits by many governments, and the hostile pressure exerted on the papacy to suppress the order, as in fact happened in 1773
The other enemy the Church had to contend with in the eighteenth century was the enlightenment, a movement that was above all philosophical, and that was very popular among the ruling class. Underlying it was a cultural current that exalted reason and nature, while fostering an indiscriminant criticism of tradition. It combined many complex strands, with a strong materialistic tendency, a naive exaltation of science, rejection of revealed religion in the name of “deism” or incredulity, an unrealistic optimism regarding man’s natural goodness, an excessive anthropocentrism, a utopian confidence in human progress, a widespread hostility against the Catholic Church, a self-sufficient attitude and scorn of the past, and finally, a deeply rooted tendency to hold simplistic and “reductionist” views. It spawned many modern ideologies that restrict the vision of reality by eliminating supernatural revelation, the spirituality of man, and ultimately, any aspiration to seek the truth about the human person and God.
In the eighteenth century, the first Masonic Lodges were founded, with a tone and agenda that were often clearly anti-Catholic.
With special thanks to Chris J Miller, Mike Voiles’ Amazing World of Comics, Michael Kooiman’s Cosmic Teams, The Unofficial DCU Guide, ReadComicOnline, Ivan, Valheru, Ashley Jean Mastrine, Ross Holtry, Renaud Battail, and Elias M Freire, the Batman Chronology Project proudly presents the Modern Age Batman chronology, highlighting the history of the Batman of the pre-Flashpoint EARTH-0. This chronology could also be labeled the post-Crisis Earth-0 or the post-Final Crisis Earth-0 timeline. The Earth featured on this timeline was first known simply as the unlabeled primary EARTH (following Crisis on Infinite Earths), then retroactively called PRE-ZERO HOUR EARTH-0 (following Zero Hour), then called NEW EARTH (following Infinite Crisis and 52), then called EARTH-0 (following Final Crisis), then retroactively called PRE-FLASHPOINT EARTH-0 (following Flashpoint). The Modern Age history comprises Batman and Batman-related DC publications ranging primarily from 1985 through 2011.  
Narratively, the Silver/Bronze Age ends with the omniversial war known as the Crisis on Infinite Earths, during which a final cosmic clash between the Spectre and the Anti-Monitor causes a reboot that spawns the new Modern Age timeline. Looking at things from a publishing perspective, the world of comic books had its Golden Age from the 30s to the late 50s/early 60s, its Silver Age from the late 50s/early 60s to 70s, and its Bronze Age from the 70s to 80s. However, the first ten years of the Modern Age is a mash-up of these previous continuities, basically including mini-altered versions of the Golden, Silver, and Bronze Ages (continuity-wise/narratively speaking).  Here’s how the Modern Age is set up in a nutshell. Golden Age material is re-imagined as spanning from the 1940s up until Bruce’s birth. Some of Batman’s Golden Age narrative gets re-imagined as happening in his first few years. The Silver Age gets re-imagined and squeezed into Batman’s first seven or eight years. The Bronze Age gets re-imagined and squeezed into Bat Year 7 through 10. And the original Crisis kicks off Bat Year 11. Batman’s first ten Modern Age years are also defined/heavily-influenced by Frank Miller’s seminal “Batman: Year One.” As such, I’ve categorized these first ten years as Batman’s “Early Period.” Batman’s Modern Age story (i.e. his “Early Period”) begins with Miller’s “Year One” and Denny O’Neil’s “Shaman” (Legends of the Dark Knight #1-5). 
This section of the website is an attempt to put all Modern Age Batman stories in chronological order. The Modern Age is probably the most scrutinized comic book era. As such, there are other sites that have tried to do build Modern Age timelines, but a number of these resources are incomplete or just plain incorrect. Therefore, this is meant to be the ultimate resource for all things Batman continuity-related when it comes to the Modern Age. As with the Golden Age and Silver Age timelines, the goal for the Modern Age timeline is to offer the best and most comprehensive suggested reading order for Batman. In order to to this, I’ve again attempted to apply specific ages to the characters and also specific dates/times to the world in which they exist. However, the Modern Age DC Universe seems to be a virtual reality where the concept of time (and consequently the concept of age) are soundly rejected. Nevertheless, I’ve tried to do it anyway. If I’ve failed in that endeavor then I apologize, and you can simply use this timeline as a reference for the correct chronological order of Batman’s life sans the calendar details.
Since we are dealing with the Modern Age (the era of comics ushered-in after Crisis on Infinite Earths in 1985 through Flashpoint in 2011), the Modern Age chronology begins with “Batman: Year One” by Frank Miller/David Mazzucchelli (1987). This is a great place to start because Crisis on Infinite Earths had recently been published as DC’s big attempt to reboot all of its characters, including the Dark Knight. Unsurprisingly, 1985 is where things first get muddled. To fully comprehend the perplexity, understanding Batman’s origin is a prerequisite. Batman’s history began in 1939 with Detective Comics #27 by Bob Kane/Bill Finger. The Caped Crusader had countless adventures for a very long time before Crisis on Infinite Earths was published in 1985-1986. The original Crisis not only rebooted Batman as a character, but also functioned as an epic, earth-altering, time-shattering crossover event that essentially erased Batman’s storied 46-year history—the DCU had been rebooted once before in the 50s/60s, but we’ll get to that in a moment—and replaced it with a new group of stories. The original Crisis also folded several character universes into one universe with one collective history. Using its terracentric format, the original Crisis mashed together Earth-1 (the home of Silver Age Batman), Earth-2 (the home of the original Golden Age Batman), Earth-4 (the home of the Charlton heroes), Earth-S (the home of the Fawcett heroes), Earth-X (the home of the Quality heroes), and others.
Hold on. What’s the deal with the Silver Age Earth-1 Batman versus Golden/Silver Age Earth-2 Batman? As briefly mentioned above, Crisis on Infinite Earths was not the first time DC publishers tried to reboot their primary universe. By the late 1950s/early 1960s, DC editors were fearing that their entire line, with a now twenty year-plus history, might be in need of a reboot. Thus, the concept of the multiverse was introduced. The late 1950s incarnations of the superheroes (characters featured in present, ongoing publications) were retconned so that they became separate characters from the versions that had their origins in the 30s and 40s. The heroes that had gone on adventures in the 30s, 40s, and 50s (fighting in World War II, fighting in the Korean War, etc…) now became the Golden Age heroes of Earth-2, while the current/ongoing late 50s versions became the main DCU versions of the Silver Age Earth-1. For Batman, there is still much debate on when exactly his reboot specifically occurred due to vague storytelling during the 50s and 60s. Some historians start Silver Age (Earth-2) Batman’s chronology beginning in the late 50s while others don’t until around 1960 or even as late as 1964. This is still a hot button issue today. 
Let’s return to 1985-1986. Crisis brought about a relative blank slate (aside from a few added-in Golden, Silver, and Bronze tales made canon via reference or flashback). In fact, because there was a void where Batman’s history used to be, there were still some gaps that writers continued to fill even as late as 2011. Contrary to popular belief, the original Crisis was not published as a way of fixing continuity errors plaguing the line—it was published because it was a compelling and undeniably lucrative story to tell. Plus, it allowed for DC to merge all of its superhero properties, many of which were recently purchased, into one solidified universe. Narratively, along comes the ultimate super-being known as the Anti-Monitor and he (along with the Spectre) alters everything and combines the infinite universes into a single universe with one collective shared history. Bear in mind, while the Anti-Monitor combines hundreds of thousands of Earths into one “New Earth” (aka Earth-0) that becomes the DCU’s main Earth, an unspecified number of alternate universes and multiverses (i.e. the Marvel Multiverse, the Image Multiverse, Wildstorm Universe, various Elseworlds universes, and more) remain unscathed and out of his vast reach. In this way, the omniverse (aka multi-multiverse) continues to exist in spite of Crisis‘ insistence that it merges everything in 1985.  But before we get too far ahead of ourselves, let’s not forget Zero Hour: Crisis in Time (1994).
In Zero Hour, Green Lantern Hal Jordan becomes symbiotically-linked to the cosmically-powered being known as Parallax. Wielding immense power and an equal amount of rage to match, Jordan alters time, compacting the entire DCU timeline into fewer “in-story years.” Those “in-story years” then became restructured so that they led up to 1994 (the year of the tale’s publication), but then later restructured so that they led up to 1998, then 2000, and then 2002. Another way of explanation is to say that a sliding-timeline (or Floating-Timeline) was created that used Zero Hour as a place-marker. (This literary phenomenon—unique to serialized media—is also aptly known as “Sliding-Time.”) To keep stories contemporary, DC editors kept sliding the debuts of the major heroes to a more current date. Technically, the year 2000 was the last time they officially slid the timeline (made clear in Guide to the DC Universe 2000 Secret Files), but it’s apparent that the Zero Hour place-marker was shifted once more to 2002 based upon overall writer consensus regarding character ages and specific references in the late 2000s. DC editors stopped shifting the timeline after the the unofficial move in 2002, but would have likely continued the trend if not for a reboot in 2011 (but we’ll get to that later).
Because of the time-alterations associated with Zero Hour, some parts of Batman’s past obviously changed yet again in 1994. It’s important to understand that some DC editors wanted Zero Hour to function the exact same way as the original Crisis, meaning they wanted a full reboot i.e. a blank historical slate leading up to 1994. 2015’s Convergence arc confirms this fact by officially referring to the chronology that spans Crisis #11 through Zero Hour as the “pre-Zero Hour timeline.” (Some folks that share this view use the term “Sigma timeline” instead. The amazing Mike Voiles even goes so far as to refer to the chunk of stories published in the year or so after Crisis #11-12 as occurring on “Merged Earth.” ) While my Modern Age Batman chronology gives a blank slate for everything prior to Crisis #11-12, I’m hesitant to do the same for Zero Hour. Zero Hour has been time-slid (from 1994 to 1998, to 2000, and then to 2002), meaning that—if it were a true reboot—only stories published from 2002 to 2011 would be officially Modern Age canon, rendering everything prior to that as mere retroactive reference material. This is DC’s majority opinion, further meaning that the company promotes the idea of two separate continuities within the Modern Age: a pre-Zero Hour timeline (aka Sigma timeline) AND a post-Zero Hour timeline (aka pre-Flashpoint timeline aka Modern Age Proper). I don’t buy that. Yes, Zero Hour introduced Sliding-Time to the DCU, but it changed very little narratively. Almost every single retcon that Zero Hour caused—from Batman’s urban myth status to Joe Chill’s erasure to the further muddling of Hawkman’s origin—was quickly ignored and reversed anyway, thus rendering Zero Hour as the very definition of a soft reboot (and barely one at that). To reiterate: in my view, Zero Hour was never a real reboot—and, even if we were to label it as such, it would definitely fall into the soft reboot category anyway.
In 2006, Infinite Crisis was published, shaking the roots of the DC Universe to its very foundations once again. The story’s narrative reveals that Superman from the original Earth-2, Superboy from the old Earth-Prime, and Alexander Luthor Jr from the old Earth-3 (all characters whose Earths were erased from existence during the original Crisis) have been watching the DC Universe from within a crystalline limbo pocket universe to which they have been exiled. Years and years have passed and they aren’t too happy with what they’ve seen. This unhappiness leads them to break out of their prison, which unleashes intense vibrational ripples that distort the fabric of time. Once again, time was adjusted significantly and New Earth/Earth-0 was recreated again. In fact, for Batman specifically, much of the character-metamorphosis that happened during Zero Hour was reversed or undone, as mentioned above. Also, 52 brand new parallel Earths were not only added to the mix but, thanks to Infinite Crisis, were also retconned to have always existed. Our chronology reflects all of the changes made by Infinite Crisis. (Oddly enough, while DC considers the non-reboot/soft reboot of Zero Hour to be a full reboot, it doesn’t seem to offer the same courtesy to Infinite Crisis, despite the fact that Infinite Crisis actually functioned way more like a legit reboot than Zero Hour ever did! Go figure. From DC’s perspective, the reason for this outlook is likely because Zero Hour contemporized DC events while Infinite Crisis didn’t. However, the logic here is terribly flawed because Zero Hour didn’t change any story whereas Infinite Crisis changed the whole story. Clearly DC’s emphasis on the term “reboot” has to do with contemporization over alteration of story. I personally would place emphasis on the reverse and I certainly have on this website.)
It is important to mention all of this in layman’s terms because we have the ability as omniscient readers to know the complete history of Batman dating back to 1939. And to really know Batman’s full history is to read every single issue of every single comic book Batman has ever appeared in since that time. However, the timeline I’m constructing here is Batman’s history as he lived it. And that is how comic book continuity works. Period. It isn’t about the whole story from beginning until end. It’s about the fictional life the character lives from his own perspective. We know that Batman fought in World War II because we read it in a comic book, but because of certain events that occur later in his life, Batman never fought in World War II, so therefore that isn’t a part of the life he would have perceived. (A different Batman fought in WWII.) Batman, by 2011, looks back and sees the 1980s as his jumping-off point, which makes a hell of a lot more sense than looking back and seeing the 1940s or the 1960s.
While time-altering, character-rebooting, retcon-laden events like Crisis on Infinite Earths, Zero Hour, or Infinite Crisis are editorially-mandated and commercially-driven, having more to do with corporate economics and industry politics than storytelling, they needn’t only be viewed through the Late Capitalistic lens of neoliberalism. These huge occurrences, like them or not, can all be read as happening naturally in Batman’s life, albeit as natural as a life led in a completely over-the-top science fiction multiverse could ever hope to be lived. Essentially, there are two types of retcons: one where you simply ignore past stories and change continuity (bad), and the other where you have an in-story event that alters the past and therefore modifies continuity (better—in fact, some argue that the latter isn’t even a retcon at all i.e. DC publishers who put it in the “relaunch” category—but for the intent and purpose of this chronology we will just say retcon). The three major DC events that I mentioned at the beginning of this paragraph function as in-story occurrences that revise Modern Age Batman’s past. Pure retcons, if you like.
To explain this Borgesian concept even further, one can look at it this way: Bruce Wayne’s parents are killed he becomes Batman Robin joins him they clash with villains like Joker and Penguin they fight in WWII their adventures get progressively campier as the duo grows into the next few decades a host of new characters are introduced dozens upon dozens of team-ups and stupendous events transpire by the late 1950s/early 1960s DC editors, already fearing that heroes with 20-plus year histories might become stale, introduce the concept of the multiverse. At this point, the late 1950s/early 1960s incarnation of Batman (along with the other heroes and villains) are retconned so that they are separate characters from the representations that have their origins in the 30s and 40s. The heroes that crusaded in the 30s, 40s, and 50s now become the Golden Age heroes of the alternate Earth-2 while their current 60s counterparts become the DCU versions of the Silver Age Earth-1 (the main DCU Earth at the time). Then the original Crisis occurs in 1985 and everything we have just mentioned up to this point is erased in one fell swoop as both Earth-1 and Earth-2 (and a whole bunch more Earths) are merged into a single Earth with a new combined/rebooted history. However, there’s no need to worry. Batman’s new history mirrors his old history/histories, but is arguably stronger, more cohesive, and topically relevant. Of course, this new Modern Age Batman never fought in World War II like the Earth-2 Batman of the great old Golden Age. Nor did he start in the swingin’ 60s like the Batman of Earth-1. Instead, the Batman of this new “single” Earth becomes a masked vigilante that begins his war on crime in the 1980s. Batman stories continue on. Zero Hour happens and the past is mutated again. Batman stories continue on. Infinite Crisis unfolds and the past is re-calibrated again. Batman stories continue on. Final Crisis ensues and the Caped Crusader is zapped by an Omega Beam. Batman stories continue on. Bruce returns and forms Batman Incorporated. Batman stories continue on. And with Flashpoint the Modern Age comes crashing to a halt, much like the previous Ages did before, paving the way for the New 52 era. But that is a chronicle best left for the New 52 section of this website, although I will delve into its details briefly below.
Every time we (the reader) witness the effects of a huge temporal-renovation in comics, the characters are unable to witness those effects because they are inside the story whereas we are outside of it. To reiterate, the past life that the character perceives becomes his one axiomatic past, even if we know the truth—that that verisimilitude doesn’t match up. However, while Batman’s first 46 years are erased thanks to the original Crisis, those decades are still apart of his history in a very unique way. Without those 46 years of story we wouldn’t and couldn’t have a Modern Age continuity (or continuities beyond the Modern Age). The story of Modern Age Batman is rooted in the ages of old—Golden, Silver, and Bronze. Many old-continuity Batman stories are referenced or re-written, thus remaining a part of canon in some way, shape, or form. Superhero comic book publishers never really throw everything out when they reboot. Instead, they chose to maintain the saga—for better or worse—with a dedication of concern for rebooting without disregarding or discarding prior narrative. The old chronicles form the spine—the skeletal framework—of new continuity. In other words, new continuity is inspired by or based on prior continuity. The Modern Age is inspired by the Golden and Silver Ages. Check out this wonderful article by Greg Burgas, which ties directly into what I’ve been rambling about here: “Greg Burgas’ CBR Blog”.
Continuing with our comics history lesson—another huge reboot occurred in 2011, the largest since the original Crisis. Known as Flashpoint, it functioned similarly to the original Crisis in that, due to a spacetime anomaly (inadvertently created by Barry Allen), all of the DCU’s history was erased and several universes were merged into one single new universe with a shared history. Thus, the Modern Age ended with Flashpoint. Not coincidentally, Flashpoint is the final entry on this Modern Age Batman chronology. 
Before continuing on to the Salad Days section, please click on the link below to read my Introduction to the “Early Period” of the Modern Age, which is essential in understanding how my Modern Age timeline is set up and how it differs from others. Thanks!
It all started with the introduction. Susan Wise Bauer starts this work with an introduction (like she does with the others) and I was disturbed. It&aposs just a page or two, but it bothered me. The tone communicates these opening words were written at the end of a long, difficult project (which I am sure this was). Perhaps she was too rushed. But after I got over her strong exhortation not to expose a child younger than 4th grade to this material, this is what bothered me:
1) What she said was histo It all started with the introduction. Susan Wise Bauer starts this work with an introduction (like she does with the others) and I was disturbed. It's just a page or two, but it bothered me. The tone communicates these opening words were written at the end of a long, difficult project (which I am sure this was). Perhaps she was too rushed. But after I got over her strong exhortation not to expose a child younger than 4th grade to this material, this is what bothered me:
1) What she said was historically incorrect.
She references a revolution-despotism cycle as inevitable. Yet, the American Revolution did not lead (at least not immediately) to a dictatorial form of government. Is it the exception? Perhaps. Seeing as the audience is primarily North American and we are coming to this introduction having just studied the American Revolution, her assertion struck me as odd at best, inaccurate at worst. Of course, we also hear of the revolution of Canada and it's quest to govern itself within the commonwealth early in this volume. Again, no tyranny there either. Hmmm.
2) What she said was theologically shallow.
The tone of the introduction reflected a despair common to post-modern times. Was Bauer that discouraged, wearied, and despondent about what she had written? And if so, do we want to read/ listen to it? Here the lack of Church History in her coverage of the world is notable. For the only true hope of the world is Jesus himself. Her thoughts reminded me of Ecclesiastes 12:12b-14
". Of making many books there is no end, and much study wearies the body. Now all has been heard here is the conclusion of the matter: Fear God and keep his commandments, for this is the duty of all mankind. For God will bring every deed into judgment, including every hidden thing,whether it is good or evil."
It got worse from there. Capitalism is an exploitative system in Bauer's world, and investors are particularly predatory, not to mention philanthropists who all made their money through oppression and give back to the community merely to assuage their pervasive guilt. While an all-glory-to-the-USDollar approach would have been equally disturbing, the lack of acknowledgment of how a free market system has contributed to the prosperity of individual Americans as well as our international influence was disturbing - especially when so many other communist, socialist states are covered. Nor does she include the massive innovations in technology that the free market system fostered. FDRs New Deal is far to favorably endorsed-to the point of erroneously being credited with pulling the country out of the Depression, an assertion few believe.
I found the chapter on Kennedy concerning. The author rhapsodizes about his idyllic image and how his assassination forced people to face America's challenges. In order to further the prospect of a Kennedy America at peace, chapters preceding the assassination are upbeat (especially for this installment!), and rather negative after - even though many of these topical matters (such as the civil rights movement) predated Kennedy and continued beyond his presidency. I find it hard to believe American's didn't feel the tension of segregation and Jim Crow laws prior to Kennedy's unexpected death -- or that people were oblivious to the Cold War!
Speaking of the Cold War. Bauer didn't seem to ever clarify that the Soviets violated their agreements with the US after WWII and instead of retreating to liberate countries (as the Allies faithfully did), they annexed them. Instead, she spends a lot of time talking about how Americans were 'afraid' of the Soviets as if this was a mere emotional perception or diplomatic misunderstanding. Yet, she doesn't present the Soviet's 'fear' of the Americans. Why? I found myself wanting to tally these terms to get a count. I also thought events in the Middle East were a bit lopsided. It's good to get the Arab point of view on Palestine across, but the Bauer never questions WHY a Palestinian state wasn't formed by Arabs when they had the chance, nor does she explain why the Palestinian refugee crises persists instead of surrounding Arab countries absorbing the displaced (as has happened with numerous other conflicts throughout history)?
This is not to say their weren't high points. I liked the coverage of the decay of the Ottoman Empire and how it affected the balance of power throughout Europe, the brutal transformation of the Belgian Congo to Zaire, the Iranian rebellion, the intricate failures of country partitions, and the discussion of nuclear power.
I consider this series a good supplement but not a main event. Sometimes I think Bauer, like many who have spent much time in books, is too smart in the worldly pursuits for her own good. She loses theological footing and needs to be drawn away from world history to Biblical Study, to re-orientate, reset, and try to approach the material from a Biblical perspective that attempts to perceive how God is moving in the midst of man's foibles and horrors. Discussions of the role missionaries played in freedom movements through the post-colonial world, language transcription and translation efforts as well as humanitarian aid movements that brought massive transfers of wealth and people from the West to third world countries -- all initiatives in which Christians played major roles -- would have gone a long way to presenting hope. Without this, we are in danger of teaching ourselves and our children to despair, just like the world around us.
This despair is hard to miss in light of the change in style. Throughout the series, Bauer has used story to engage us with the historical account, and while there are some glimmers of her whimsical style coming through, by her own admission, she had to eliminate much of that type of content due to the graphic nature of modern time destruction and cruelty. This gives the account a more rigid feeling than previous installments.
Finally, I have noticed that the closer you get to modern times, the more difficult it is to agree with another person's perception of the historical record. While we have enough perspective to declare authoritatively that the Peloponnese War weakened the Greek city states, we are still debating the merits of a free market economy, nuclear power and whether or not American influence in the world is positive. Our personal connection to these events renders us far more opinionated about recent Presidents, or even FDR or JFK, than we are about Alexander the Great (who was responsible for a lot of warring and conquering). In previous installments, I was content with Bauer's presentation as "good enough," but in Volume III: The Early Modern Age, we started to diverge and now in Volume IV, I find our journey together uncomfortable at best and can no longer recommend her path to others. In fact, I was relieved when we were finished.
Ultimately, I have discovered Story of the World to be a secular series for Christians. It won't attack your faith or demean it like many secular history accounts will, and that has value to educating our children. However, it also will not particularly strengthen your faith or inspire you with God's movement through history or the lives of the saints who have gone before. I am in pursuit of a world history for children that both respects and inspires.
Computers and telecommunications transformed the production process for the modern newspaper. They also led to changes in the quality of the newspaper itself, but their real impact was on the finances of the newspaper industry and on the relevance of the traditional print workers. One of the first signs of technology’s potential for change came in the 1930s, when Walter Morey developed the Teletypesetter (first demonstrated in 1928). This machine was an improvement on the telegraph, which was widely used by reporters in the field and by the wire services, such as Reuters and Associated Press, to send news items in draft form to editorial offices miles away. With the Teletypesetter, the impulses sent over the wire included encoded instructions to Linotype machines. The machines could then decode the instructions and automatically prepare whole pages ready for printing. It was therefore envisaged that the reporter would have the facility for “direct input” into the printing room, which would eliminate the need for retyping by a Linotype operator and thus save newspapers both time and money.
But direct input had to await the development of sophisticated computers and computer programs, which did not materialize until after World War II. In 1946 the first techniques of photocomposition were developed. With this method of typesetting, the images of pages are prepared for the printer photographically, as on a photocopier, instead of in lines of metal type. The new method was introduced gradually in newspapers, where the Linotype machines had worked well enough for more than half a century and where union opposition to the new technology was deeply entrenched. Technological advances were accelerated in the 1970s, especially through the introduction of computers and computer programs that were tailor-made for the newspaper publisher. Many newspaper companies replaced their 19th-century printing systems with the new technology almost overnight.
In a modern newspaper office each journalist has a desktop terminal or computer—i.e., a keyboard and monitor connected to the main computer. The monitor shows the current article or, in the case of a copy editor, the whole of the page being composed from various articles and pictures. While writing, the reporter can retrieve information stored in the computer, such as any previous articles on the same subject, which can be displayed on the screen alongside the new copy. This split-screen technology also allows the copy editor to move copy around the screen on special page-layout terminals until the copy fits the page. Once it is ready, a push of a button sends the complete page to the main computer for eventual transformation into camera-ready composition. From there, a negative image of the page is captured on film and, depending on the type of press used, typically etched onto a printing plate.
By this direct-input process the production of a page of news is accelerated. But the new technology can serve other production purposes. On some papers it is possible for an advertiser to send copy via a fax machine, an Intranet system, or the Internet to the newspaper office, where a computer automatically finds a suitable space for it and transmits it to the copy editor’s screen. The reporter in the field, equipped with a portable terminal, can also input a story to the newspaper’s computer directly and can gain access to the computer’s library of information in the same way. If necessary, the editor can discuss the article with the reporter over the telephone or via e-mail (electronic mail) as they both look at it on their screens. Similarly, items from press agencies can be located instantly these can be transmitted to the computer terminal via cables or over the air by satellite, enabling news to reach the other side of the world within minutes. The electronic transmission of whole pages of news between remote locations also means that the printing plant does not have to be situated near the editorial offices. This has decreased real estate or rental costs for many urban newspapers, and it has also made possible the printing of simultaneous editions of the same newspaper in different cities and even on different continents, an advantage first exploited by the British-based Financial Times and the U.S.-based Wall Street Journal.
The turmoil of the 20th century proved a trying time for Christianity. Due to its global spread, there were Christians on all sides of nearly every major conflict of the century, from two world wars, through the use of nuclear bombs in Japan, to wars in Korea and Vietnam, to the anti-colonial conflicts in Latin America, North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and the Middle East. Marxist governments came to power and enforced secular culture throughout the historic areas of the Eastern Churches and in China. Christians were challenged to redefine their morals and their ideologies in response to these upheavals.
New movements emerged in the 20th century: ecumenism, liberation theology, Pentecostalism, and fundamentalism. Each in their own way represented a thoughtful response to the question of the role of Christians in the world. The 20th century also saw the development of a shift of a center of gravity to the global South.
The spirit of ecumenism is nearly as old as Christianity itself. The First Ecumenical Council at Nicaea in 325 was so called because bishops came from all parts of the Christian world. Twentieth-century ecumenism dates to 1910 when several missionary societies convened a meeting in Scotland designed to develop a common missionary strategy that could contribute to the healing of divisions and coordinate a mutual commitment to action and service to the world. Between 1910 and 1948, a number of denominations established international church councils. National church councils such as the British Council of Churches and the National Council of Churches of Christ in the U.S. were formed so that various Protestant groups could work together on issues of common interest. The World Council of Churches was founded in 1948.
The European experience of Nazism convinced the churches that the world needed a unified Christianity with the strength to resist further terrors. Over the next five decades, anti-colonial struggles and the resulting civil wars had a profound effect on the membership of the international federations and the World Council of Churches. Many of the member churches in the so-called first world built strong bonds of solidarity with churches in the developing world that were campaigning for national independence, self-determination, and economic development. These campaigns were tightly linked to a theology from the developing world called liberation theology. Liberationist movements found allies and partners in the ecumenical movement largely because of the increasing numbers of activists and intellectuals from the developing world in leadership roles in the federations and councils.
Beginning in Latin America, and emerging from local Christian responses to the conditions of extreme poverty and suffering, liberation theology called for all people to stand with Jesus on the side of the poor and the oppressed. Based in their practical experiences of combating illiteracy and helping the desperately poor to read the Bible, these theologians came to see the teachings of Jesus with new eyes. They saw fresh relevance in Jesus' love for the poor, and his efforts to ease their suffering. Latin American liberation theology was found in the scholarly writings of such teachers as Gustavo Gutiérrez and José Miguez Bonino, in the poetry and activism of revolutionary priest Ernesto Cardenal, in the work of literacy teacher Paolo Freire, and in the life and ministry of martyred Roman Catholic Archbishop Oscar Romero.
Liberation theology spread to the United States, where James Cone penned his A Black Theology of Liberation in 1970. Black liberation theology was furthered by the teaching and preaching of such American intellectuals as Cornel West and Dwight Hopkins, and transformed by women such as Jacquelyn Grant, Katie Cannon, and Delores Williams. Feminist liberation theology, African liberation theology, and Korean Minjung theology were among other compelling and inspiring explorations of incarnation and redemption. It was not long before liberation theologians began extending their ideas on human freedom and dignity to questions of environmental protection and health, as well as interfaith understanding and cooperation.
A Look Inside
A Charlotte Mason inspired Journey Through World History!
The World's Story 3 guides students in a trip around the world as they study history from the will study the Age of Explorers through the modern day and learn all about the wars, revolutions, and culture changes that defined these times.
In The World's Story 3, your student will:
- Study the growth of our world, from the first explorers to today’s modernized cultures
- Discover Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand Magellan, and others who sailed the earth’s oceans
- Visit the sites of major wars and revolutions, tracing the rise and fall of various nations
- Learn about the discovery of new lands, the development of new technology, and the constant cultural struggle among people of all ethnicities
- Study how modernization has radically changed politics, economies, cultures, societies, and worldviews all around the globe
Easy for teachers, exciting for students!
The World's Story 3 is designed to be easy to use as it guides your student through an exciting adventure through world history as they:
- Learn to retell history through the use of oral & written narration
- Sketch their way through historical scenes
- Create their own maps
- Compile and study timelines
- And study architectural styles from different time periods!
Exciting, interactive stories!
The World's Story 3 brings history alive for students in an exciting way! Through engaging, conversational narrative, O'Dell interacts with students and draws them in to imagine the adventures, hardships, failures, and triumphs of the incredible events and civilizations that shaped the modern age.
The World's Story 3 Set Includes:
The World's Story 3 Student Book:
Full-color student textbook featuring engaging narrative and beautiful historic illustrations, photographs, maps, and cultural connections.
Main characteristics of the Modern Age
1 - Globalization
The Age of Discovery (also known as the Age of Exploration) has been mentioned as one of the possible starting points of the Modern Age.
In the same way, this era is also recognized as the beginning of globalization, one of the main characteristics of the Modern Age.
These voyages and discoveries of new countries, territories and continents of which there was no knowledge or certainty of their existence, represented an important change in diverse areas as the commerce, the culture, the religion, etc.
An important consequence of the discoveries is found in colonization, carried out especially by Spain and Portugal first, and later also by Great Britain and The Netherlands.
In turn, I also create a new trade need between continent. For example, spices became indispensable in European diets and cinnamon or pepper became a necessity.
This gastronomic exchange forced to develop new Conservation techniques Due to long journeys across the world.
The catholic religion, predominant in Europe and imposed to the new colonized territories, began to suffer a decline in its popularity, because it was in conflict with the new urban life.
During the papacy of Julius II, dubbed the"Warrior Pope", who increasingly resorted to the sale of indulgences (absolution of sins), the protests of John Wycliff, Jan Hus and Martin Luther against the Dominant Catholic church.
Extract of the 95 theses of Martin Luther
It was Martin Luther Who gave a vision of the Catholic religion much more in accord with the ideals of the Modern Age. Having pointed out, when he refused to submit to the church, that the only source of authority was the sacred scriptures.
This represented a personalistic and intimate vision, in contrast to the communitarian idea of the religion that had the medieval catholic church.
However, among Luther's followers there was no possible conformity, due to the personal interpretation of the Bible and the non-acceptance of intermediaries between God and man So that in Europe were conglomerated diverse beliefs, some of these contradictory.
The re-establishment of the three major Muslim empires (Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal) gave a resurgence to Muslim culture. For example, the Safavid Empire established the Twelfth or Immani Shiism as an official religion in Iran.
3 - Renaissance humanism
He humanism Was a European intellectual, philosophical and cultural movement initiated in Italy and then expanded throughout Western Europe between the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. In this one was looked for to return to the models of the Classical Antiquity and the Greco-Roman humanism.
This movement arose in response to the doctrine of utilitarianism. Humanists sought to create citizens who were able to express themselves, orally and in writing, with eloquence and clarity, but still committing themselves to the civic life of their communities and persuading others to perform virtuous and prudent actions.
In order to fulfill this ideal, he used the study of"Studia humanitatis", which we know today as the humanities, among them: grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry and moral philosophy.
The"Studia humanitatis"excluded logic from their study, and made poetry (a sequel to grammar and rhetoric) the most important area of study.
This emphasis on the study of poetry and the quality of oral and written expression, above logic and practice, represent an illustration of the ideals of change and progress of the Modern Age and the yearning for the Renaissance.
During the Middle Ages, the bourgeois were the name given to the inhabitants of the boroughs, which were the new neighborhoods of the expanding cities.
In the Modern Age this term changed, to mean free men. He was referring to those individuals who were outside the already decadent Feudal system , Standing out for its capacity to enrich itself with the creation of commercial networks.
The main economic centers were within the cities, which were now the place where the bourgeoisie lived.
For this reason, the economic difference between bourgeoisie and peasantry was considerable Because the peasants lived outside the city, dedicating themselves to agricultural activities of low productivity, which left them in historical anonymity.
5 - Absolutism
Unlike the bourgeoisie, which could scarcely be considered a substitute for feudalism, absolutism Was a system that was present during the period of transition from feudalism to capitalism .
Absolutism can be described as monarchical power, which was unbridled and left behind any other institution, such as churches, legislatures or social elites. In the absolutist monarchy, a ruler has supreme authority, and there are no laws that restrict it.
The main features of absolutism are: the end of feudal partition, the consolidation of monarchical power, the growth of state power, the unification of state laws, a drastic increase in monarch tax revenues, and The influence of the nobility.
Mercantilism was the dominant economic school in the Modern Age, from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. It brought with it the first signs of significant government intervention and control over the economy.
The discovery of spices, silk, and other rare commodities in Europe created a new need and therefore a new desire to trade. By being able to be satisfied during the Age of Discoveries, European powers created new and vast networks of international trade.
Nations also found new sources of wealth, and to deal with these new economic theories and practices were created.
Due to national interest in competing, nations sought to increase their power based on their colonial empires. In addition, this trade revolution represented a growth of interests other than manufacturing, such as banking and investment.
7- The woman
During the Modern Age a patriarchal model is followed, so that women are relegated to a subordinate role and are mostly invisible from history.
However, the role of women in Western civilizations was more visible on the rare occasions when they played the role of queen or regent.
Although there were antecedents of women who had held important positions (queens and regents) during the Middle Ages, they were treated misogynistic by historiography, unlike women like Isabel I of Castile or Isabel I of England, who have been treated With great admiration.
Elizabeth I of England
However, some of the most exceptional cases of women with leading roles in the Modern Age were women with unconventional positions, such as Sister Teresa de Jesus or Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, poet, as well as the Japanese geishas, who were supplanting To the men in the tasks that characterize them.
The French Revolution and the Spanish-American War of Independence were two historical situations in which some women had the opportunity to participate, challenging their social power, and in some cases occupying decisive roles, such as Colonel Juana Azurduy in Upper Peru.
The Illustration , Also known as the Age of Reason, was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the eighteenth century, called the 'Century of philosophy '.
This movement included a range of ideas centered on reason as the main source of legitimacy and authority, in addition to bringing more advanced ideals such as freedom, progress, tolerance, fraternity, a constitutional government in opposition to the monarchy and Separation of Church and State (secular state).
The Encyclopedie or Encyclopedia
Some of the philosophers who preceded and influenced the illustration include Francis Bacon , Rene Descartes , John Locke and Baruch Spinoza.
Also noteworthy were other greats such as Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, David Hume, Immanuel Kant and Adam Smith, whose ideals were incorporated into the United States Constitution in 1787.
The most influential publication of the Enlightenment was the Ecyclopédia, or Systematic Dictionary of Sciences, Arts and Crafts, published in thirty-five (35) volumes between 1751 and 1772. This helped the proliferation of ideas of illustration in Europe and beyond Europe.
9- The Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Revolution is the concept by which historians describe the rise of modern science during the Modern Age.
That is, when development and discoveries in mathematics, biology, chemistry, physics and astronomy changed the way we see the nature of society.
This revolution took place in Europe from the end of the Renaissance, and extended until the eighteenth century, influencing the intellectual and philosophical movement of the Enlightenment.
The publication of About the Spins of the Celestial Orbs , from Nicolaus Copernicus , Is taken as the beginning of the scientific revolution, although the date is debated.
The philosophy of using an inductive method to obtain knowledge (abandoning the supposition and trying to observe with the open mind), was a contrast with the Aristotelian deductive method.
In practice, many philosophers and scientists believed that it was healthy to use a little of both Question the assumption, but interpret the assumed observations to have some degree of validity.
During the beginning of the Scientific Revolution, known as the"Scientific Revival", focused on regaining knowledge of the ancients and is considered to have its place with the publication of Principia , from Isaac Newton , Which formulated the laws of Newton and the law of universal gravitation.
10- Art in the Modern Age
During the Renaissance, painters developed perspective and other topics of realism, studying light, shadows, and as he famously did Leonardo da Vinci , The human anatomy.
During the Renaissance the desire to illustrate the beauty of nature resurfaced, with Da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael as its main exponents.
In architecture, Filippo Brunelleschi studied the remains of the buildings of Classical Antiquity.
With the rediscovery of the knowledge of the writer Vitruvius of century I and the flourishing discipline of the mathematics, Brunelleschi formulated the Renaissance style, that was influenced by the classic style, but with better of the same.
However, the style that prevailed the longest during the Modern Age was the Baroque art , Which can be found from Protestant northern Europe, colonial America and the Philippines.
Characterized by being visually overloaded, away from the pursuit of simplicity and love for the typical nature of the Renaissance.
As for urbanism and baroque architecture, its principle was the experience of the city as an artificial stage, where the perspectives glorify the representative spaces of power, m While the Protestant Baroque presents a more individualistic style, such as the Lutheran principle of Christianity.
In addition, during the Modern Age, in Africa and Asia their own artistic manifestations were produced, of high level and with own characteristics.
In Islamic art, geometric patterns are emphasized, in India and Tibet expression was developed through painted sculptures, in Japan the relationship between calligraphy and painting continues, and in China, original manifestations are performed in a variety of styles.
Story of the World Vol. 4: Modern Age sc
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Now revised with a 2021 copyright, this new edition of Volume 4 is compatible with both the original and the revised Vol. 4 Activity Book. The Volume 4 text covers the modern era, &ldquoFrom Victoria&rsquos Empire to the End of the USSR.&rdquo Formatted similarly to the previous volumes in the series, this text contains 42 chapters highlighting some of the major people, places and events in world history, from 1850 to 1994. Some highlights include: the Crimean war, the American Civil War, the Second Reich, the Japan&rsquos Meiji restoration, the Suez Canal, the Boers, Western expansion in the U.S., the Boxer Rebellion in China, the Mexican Revolution, the rise of Joseph Stalin, Hitler&rsquos rise to power, the Holocaust, the Atom bomb, the partitioning of Palestine, the Cold War, the Vietnam War, Chernobyl, the end of Communism, and much more. Each story from history is told in an exciting, readable way, which is sure to hold students&rsquo attention - especially as they cover history in the not-too-distant past! No additional historical content from the 21st century has been added with the revision. An afterward explains that there are plans to release an expanded edition in 2030 with more recent historical events covered.
The activity book (sold separately and also now revised) contains both teacher and student portions. The text is available in either paperback or hardcover (please note that our hardcover inventory as of 5/07/21 is still the previous edition). - Jess
Its as amazing as it always was and yet its so much better! For years BiblioPlan meant a series of four time-period-specific planning guides for world history. Using a spine and incorporating first-rate literature suggestions, they provided the framework for anyone wanting to study world history chronologically and classically. Then a few years ago, they started adding components and we wondered exactly where they were headed. Now we have a good idea and its looking good. The name BiblioPlan is still synonymous with classical chronological world history but what is available now is a full-bodied, full-color curriculum rather than a framework. Its comprehensive and thorough while providing ease of use and minimum teacher prep. They allow students of all ages to work on the same eras at the same time. Theres also flexibility. You can still use just the framework (Family Guide) or you can add some or all of the components. You can take a general approach and incorporate multiple ages at once or you can use material that targets particular education levels (i.e., upper middle school). Older children can help younger children and children of all ages will be making memories as they work together. Biblioplan puts you in the drivers seat with full controls.
Ancient, Medieval, and Modern America & World History are completely revised and all components are available. Early America & World History is currently "under construction" and will be available early in 2014. The unrevised versions are still available but are listed separately to avoid confusion.
BiblioPlan Family Guides
provide the structural framework for the program a full years worth of history and literature readings. There are four Guides, one for each of the four classical (chronological) time periods Ancient, Medieval, Early America & World, and Modern America & World (inspired by the Well-Trained Mom). This is the product that used to BE Biblioplan. In other words, when you said Biblioplan these guides are what you meant. Designed by a group of homeschooling moms for themselves, this guide gives you 34 weekly spreadsheets each a comprehensive lesson plan. Their goal was to integrate quality historical literature with biblical and secular history. They put together an easy-to-follow plan which requires minimal parental prep covering the historical topic (Classtime), a Psalm study, References and Resources for textual information about the topic, Literature selections of the Week (for grades K-2, 3+, 5+ and 8+), a Family Read Aloud suggestion, Writing Ideas, Optional Fiction & Resources, and suggested Activities. Introductory information includes the usual "how to find books" and "how to use the plan" information as well as the book lists for both the scheduled and the optional literature. If your family includes older students, then youll be glad to know that a supplement for high school is included. Theres more! Prior to each Era (for instance, Early Christianity and the Rise of Islam, Europe & the Crusades, etc. for the Medieval history) there are several additional pages of reference material annotated book lists for the Readers, the Family Read Alouds, and the Optional Resources/Fiction.
If it sounds like the Family Guides might be all you need you would be correct. Theyre comprehensive and thorough in general, well-constructed plans. You could complete four years (plus four more if you wanted) of interesting history, absorbing literature, and engaging activity possibilities using just these Guides. You may also want to ensure you have access to some or all of the frequently-referenced "spine resources" if you go this route. These include Story of the World, Mystery of History, The Kingfisher History Encyclopedia, The Usborne Encyclopedia of World History, or History of US. However, if you like to have perfectly coordinated, quality material at your fingertips rather than scrambling for it then you can incorporate one or more of the following components.
There is one for each time period. Essentially, these are historical textbooks but not like any youve seen before. For one thing they provide both textual information (in a narrative prose style) and enrichment supplements. For another, theyre spiral-bound so they lay flat and color-coordinated so you know instantly if youre reading history text (black & white) or about people and special events (various colored backgrounds). These are books which beg to be pored over. In the random pages open before me from the Medieval Companion, there is a section on Muslim food laws and their rituals for newborns, a description of a tughra (Ottoman sultans signature) with gorgeous, artistic examples and a Turkish paper decorating technique ebru. In the Giants of the Faith section is a biographical sketch of Saint George and the Dragon which continues onto the next page and includes a large, glorious artwork reproduction of the same. There is a pattern to the information provided for each chapter (34 in each Companion one for each week): Geography Focus, History Focus, Fascinating Facts, Mystifying Myths, Interesting Individuals, Fascinating Foods, Church History Focus, Critical Concepts, and Giants of the Faith. Just in case theres any doubt, the Companions and all the BiblioPlanmaterials have a consistent biblical and Christian worldview. The Companions provide all the necessary textual information for the Classtime and greatly reduce, or even eliminate, the need for any outside historical reference books or spines. That being said, some may still choose to use the recommended spine readings in order to provide even more historical perspective and textual information.
BiblioPlan Cool History
provides weekly assignment sheets at four different grade level groupings Littles (K-2), Middles (2-6), Upper Middles (6-8), and Advanced (8-12). Its pretty easy to surmise that the goal of these is to allow a family to challengingly study the same time period and the same topics but at their own distinct levels. Templates for a year-long project Giants of the Faith Book are provided along with coordination of coloring pages (lower levels), Giants of the Faith suggestions, and hands-on activities (i.e. crafts, again for the lower levels). There are subtle grade-appropriate variations in the levels but these pages include reading assignments and questions taken from the Companion readings. The Littles book has suggested reading assignments that point to certain sections of the Companions of interest to younger students and Globe Fun (introductory map activities). The Middles and Upper Middles have an Optional Bonus Question or Activity. Both the Upper Middles and the Advanced include periodic (about every six weeks) exams. The Advanced assignment sheets have assorted questions fill in the blank, short answers, short essays (all taken from the Companions) and research essays (outside of Companions). If youre concerned about answers to all these questions they do exist but they arent in the Cool History books. Its necessary to contact the publisher ([email protected]) for permission to download the answers. Im impressed with the general breadth and scope of these assignment sheets. Theyre obviously designed for review, retention, and reinforcement. And, in general, theyre visually appealing with full color illustrations. However, the space for writing answers seems irregular (Middles is too small 3/16" line spacing Upper Middles has no lines) and may mean it will work best for your students to transfer all answers to notebooks/binders.
BiblioPlan Hands On Maps
provides one or two full-color maps each week that correspond to the weeks lesson content. Instructions for the maps are printed directly on the map. While students may need to gather a little helpful information from the Companions and/or a world map, students will be able to complete the maps at their level more or less on their own. The Middles maps set has suggestions for K-2, 3+, and 5+ students. The Advanced maps set includes six geography exams as well as a geography scope and sequence. The same set of maps is included in both books but the Middles includes some prompts and partial information that make them easier to complete.
BiblioPlan Timelines & Figures
are well-crafted supplements with one distinct advantage over many other timelines theyre in color. The spiral-bound books can be used "as is" or the pages removed and the timeline mounted on a wall or the pages three-hole punched and the timeline placed into a binder which would allow your student to create an entire timeline in one place. Lots of flexibility here. The timeline consists of one or more colored strips (color varies with the time period) plus dated notes on particular events. The student cuts out the graphics and pictures (located in the back of the book) and inserts them in the appropriate place. The Ancient Timeline includes a single timeline. The Medieval, Renaissance and Reformation Timeline includes two timelines one for church history and one for "regular" history. The America and the World Timeline features facing pages one for the Americas and one for the World. As mentioned earlier, the Timeline Figures are mostly in color (some 19th and 20th century figures are prints of original black and white photos) and, frankly, very eye-catching. Figures include portraits, artifacts, geographical features, monuments and buildings, photos or drawings of events, and much more.
BiblioPlan Craft Book
provides over one hundred crafts that correlate with the Family Guides. These are the crafts referenced in the Cool History assignment sheets. And I must say, the book I examined (Medieval) was very impressive. I would have loved to have such a well-illustrated and well-explained variety of crafts and projects to accompany our history studies. On the random page I opened, there are seven crafts which flow from four separate weeks (by the way, there are seven additional projects for those same four weeks the average is over three per week). A few require materials from other sources but most include directions all include full-color pictures. Heres the selection: Porcelain Painting (buy a kit), Hold a Japanese Tea Ceremony (get details from internet), Make a Kharbhooja Sharbat Drink (directions), Make a Flying Dragon Head (directions), Make a Chinese Dragon (directions), Make a Yurt (directions), Make a Chinese Cricket Cage (directions). Patterns where needed are provided in the back of the book. This book is fully integrated with the BiblioPlan program but could also be used as a supplement to another world history study.
The BiblioPlan Coloring Book
provides coloring sheets to accompany the lessons. These are referenced in both the Family Guides and the Cool History for Littles assignment sheets. There is at least one and often two pages per week.
The BiblioPlan Family Discussion Guide
is for families who want some help in broadening their history studies into thoughtful family discussions. These Guides provide discussion starters that will help you guide your students into a better understanding of the connections between secular history and their Christian faith. One of the advantages of the Discussion Guide is that they allow you to lead discussions without having to study everything in the Companion yourself.
Remember the Days
is a historical textbook series specifically designed for younger readers (K-6). Covering the same topics (World History, U.S. History, Church History, and Geography) as the Companion and having the same 34 weeks of study, there are more fun stories and more "young" appeal. While you will most likely need to read to your early elementary students, upper elementary students will be able to handle much of the reading on their own. Currently Volume 2 (Medieval Days) and Volume 3 (Early Modern Days) are available with the other two expected over the next two years.
BiblioPlan Cool History Classic
is a republished version of an older edition of the Cool History books. In this version (which did not have grade level grouping designations), questions are based on the textual content of Susan Wise Bauers Story of the World rather than on the BiblioPlan Companions.
So, if your whole family is ready to dig into world history and you want flexibility, an excellent road map, comprehensive textual information, and colorful, engaging reinforcement and enrichment possibilities, then look no further than the new, reconstructed BiblioPlan.