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Brennus (4th century BC)

Brennus depicted on the figurehead of the French battleship Brennus.

Brennus (or Brennos) was a chieftain of the Senones. He defeated the Romans at the Battle of the Allia (18 July 390 BC). In 387 BC he led an army of Cisalpine Gauls in their attack on Rome and captured most of the city, holding it for several months. Brennus's sack of Rome was the only time in 800 years the city was occupied by a non-Roman army before the fall of the city to the Visigoths in 410 AD.

Copyright The Columbia University Press

Brennus, fl. c.389 BC, legendary Gallic leader. He occupied Rome but failed to take the Capitol from Manlius (Marcus Manlius Capitolinus). According to legend, when the tribute that the Romans had agreed to pay was being weighed, a Roman complained, whereupon Brennus threw his sword on the scale, crying, "Vae victis!" [woe to the vanquished]. His historical existence is dubious.

Copyright The Columbia University Press

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. The Columbia University Press


This is a no-brainer. Everyone knows how Hannibal crossed the Alps with his terrifying elephants and won a string of supremely impressive victories. Well, the Romans understandably hated this man for doing so, and for much more.

Yes, Hannibal had inflicted horrible losses, but the way he did it was infuriating. The first big battle at the Trebia was won by irritating and taunting the Roman commander Sempronius into attacking at dawn across an icy river in freezing rain. The next battle at Trasimene saw Hannibal launch an ambush with his entire army, slamming into the unprepared marching column of Flaminius, killing him and most of his men.

The Romans thought they had him at Cannae they had an army twice the size of Hannibal’s, they anchored their flanks with a river and had the battle in the open to prevent Hannibal’s tricks and traps. Hannibal used this overconfidence to inflict one of the worst defeats the Romans would ever endure.

Hannibal counting the rings of the killed Roman nobles after Cannae.

The defeat at Cannae forced the Romans into a defensive battle for Italy, a move that the aggressive Romans hated almost as much as losing the actual battles. The long grinding war fueled the hate and fear, and eventually Hannibal became a boogeyman type figure, with parents telling their kids “you better behave or Hannibal will get you.” The Romans feared Hannibal potentially marching on Rome at any moment.

Though Hannibal was finally brought back to Africa and defeated by Scipio Africanus, he was still relentlessly pursued by the Romans. Assassins likely pursued him and ambassadors called for foreign kings to hand him over.

Successfully Brennus ,would Greece be Celticized


Celtization of Greece is not likely as an immediate effect, a important factor would be that the Hellenistic kingdom would definitely be compelled to move into the political vacuum left by the defeated Macedonian kingdoms and peninsular leagues, it could signify further migrations into Dardania, Paeonia, Moesia and Thracia, which could mean Celtization of those places instead and further pressure on Greece.

Demographically Greece could be really ruined, if there is no effective political replacement, from example from OTL Pyrrhus from Epirus, it could also mean a stronger migration of Macedonian mercenaries and Greeks towards the Hellenistic kingdoms, this coupled with the seemingly poor demographics of 2nd century BCE Greece could mean a depopulated Greece, although I might be exaggerating in my description.


Celtization of Greece is not likely as an immediate effect, a important factor would be that the Hellenistic kingdom would definitely be compelled to move into the political vacuum left by the defeated Macedonian kingdoms and peninsular leagues, it could signify further migrations into Dardania, Paeonia, Moesia and Thracia, which could mean Celtization of those places instead and further pressure on Greece.

Demographically Greece could be really ruined, if there is no effective political replacement, from example from OTL Pyrrhus from Epirus, it could also mean a stronger migration of Macedonian mercenaries and Greeks towards the Hellenistic kingdoms, this coupled with the seemingly poor demographics of 2nd century BCE Greece could mean a depopulated Greece, although I might be exaggerating in my description.



It is more likely the Celts become Hellenized (although they will likely maintain to a certain degree some of their customs as well as parts of their ethnolinguistic identity & be considered barbarians, esp. by some of the more "pure" Greeks) in a way not unsimilar to the Galatians. I don't see the Celts changing the course of history, especially in the face of an entrenched Hellenistic culture.


Your source, at least insofar as it's not empty statements, rather points at Hellenization being limited to certain fields and frankly the concept of Hellenization is so broad that it's pointless, sure the elite assumed Hellenisic modes, but so did people that didn't end up under Greek rule or were already native and didn't start being Greek all of a sudden like Bythinians, Pontus and others.


My point was there is no reason to believe the Celts would maintain their culture as it had been pre-Brennus there is good reason to predict that the Celtic aristocracy would become integrated into the way things in the Hellenistic Eastern Mediterranean were. I don't see why the Celts wouldn't go down the path of Pontus (whose elite were originally Persian Zoroastrian refugees, but by Mithridatic times were championing the cause of the Greek world), Galatia (which started out as having been founded by Gauls, but by Roman times were being called Gallograeci and disparaged precisely because they were trying to be Greek, but their culture was viewed by Greek writers as a bastardization of 'pure' culture), or Bithynia (founded by Thracians, but whose kingdom was open to Greek colonists by Roman times & whose kings depicted themselves in Hellenistic style).

History [ edit | edit source ]

Umbriel Crisis [ edit | edit source ]

Brennus and other sorcerers were escorted by imperial soldiers to gather data from Umbriel. As Brennus made his measurements, they were attacked by a party of zombies. They didn't know the undead could walk away so far from Umbriel. Captain Falcus ordered his men to retreat south. Ώ]

In their retreat, they came across Mountain Watch. They evacuated the villagers and they marched to Cheydinhal. Brennus wasn't used to keeping pace of the march. A girl named Lorcette offered Brennus her sit in a wagon. When they were about half a mile away from the city walls, the undead approached them. The villagers had to abandon everything and run. Once inside the city, Brennus went to the highest spire of the chapel of Arkay to make some measurements. ΐ]

The imperial legionaries and the Cheydinhal guard broke the line of the wormies so that the citizens could scape from the siege. They hold the line for hours before Falcus gave the order to regroup on the Blue Road. Brennus and Mazgar broke away from the group. They headed to the Imperial City, but they were spotted by a zombie scout party. They run away from them, but Brennus began to falter.

They came across a farmstead, they barricaded the door and they prepared to hold the ground. When the zombies managed to take down the door, Brennus casted a spell that desintegrated three zombies. They were rescued by Ilver Indarys and Knights of the Thorn. They talked about the evacuation of Cheydinhal to the knights, who offered them horses to travel to the Blue Road. Α]

Mazgar and Brennus met with the refugees in the Blue Road. Mazgar was given a field promotion to captain by Commander Prossos. She was sent to explore a hill and make sure it was free of the enemy. Brennus accompanied her during her task. The battle went wrong for the imperial army, so General Takar retreated to the Imperial City. Prossos left Mazgar in charge of the refugees, but she requested him to allow her go to defend the Imperial City. Brennus told Prossos that Mazgar had to escort him. Mazgar thought that Brennus wanted to retreat back to Cheydinhal, but he demanded to come along with her to defend the Imperial City. Β]

They crossed Lake Rumare by boat. They were attacked by zombies which emerged from the lake. They landed as soon as they could, the surviving soldiers formed a defence line in the shore. Brennus helped as he could. He fell in with Mazgar to rest while they could. Γ]

They met up with what was left of the Twelfth Legion. They cleared the gate and set up positions to defend it from another siege. Mazgar and Brennus found themselves on the western flank of the action, where little or no fighting was going on. Yet, Umbriel approached the city from that direction, followed by thousands of zombies. Some zombies poured through the gaps that dead soldiers left. Brennus was severely wounded, so Mazgar and him retreated back until their spine was against the wall. Brennus made a semicircle of blue flame around them. Mazgar told him that he would survive, so Brennus told her to do what she had to do. Just when she was going to end with Brennus' life, Attrebus destroyed the Ingenium, and all the wormies became lifeless. Mazgar turned around to ask Brennus what had happened, but Brennus was already dead. Δ]

Brennus and his share of the spoils

Bran, the son of Barnaeos and Bissula, the husband of Martiola, and the brother of Sobios, was the chief of the Gallic Senones, whom he led over the Alps in 400 BC. The Senones invaded northern Italy, drove the Umbri from their homes, and settled in a portion of Italy stretching from Ariminum to Ancona Brennus founded Sena Gallica (Senigallia) as the Senones' capital in Italy. In 391 BC, the Senones invaded Etruria and besieged Clusium, which appealed to the Roman Republic for support. At the Battle of the Allia in 390 BC, Brennus annihilated a Roman army, and his army proceeded to capture most of Rome in 387 BC, although the Capitoline Hill remained in Roman hands. The Romans attempted to buy their salvation from Brennus, but, during a dispute over the weights used to measure the Roman gold, Brennus threw his sword onto the scales and uttered the famous words Vae victis ("Woe to the conquered!"), meaning that the conquered should not expect leniency. The argument had so delayed matters that the exiled dictator Marcus Furius Camillus had extra time to muster an army, return to Rome, expel the Gauls, and save the treasury. The Gauls were routed from the city and defeated in battle eight miles on the road to Gabbi, and Brennus and many of his warriors were slain, avenging the atrocities which they had committed in Rome.

AMX-30B2 Brennus

The AMX-30B2 Brennus is a French MBT which is based off the AMX-30B.

The Gallic Sack of Rome

In the 5th and early 4th centuries BC, migratory Germanic tribes pressured Gallic Celts living in the Danube regions to push South in search of new territory. They were likely familiar with the Po River Valley, in north central Italy, from trade arrangements with Etruscans who were there. The Gauls crossed the Alps en masse capturing and settling Etruscan territory by force. The Gallic tribes were united only by blood and origin and each maintained their own kings or warlords. Some of these tribes settled into cattle and cereal farming along with peaceful cohabitation, but others maintained aggressive policies towards their new neighbors.

One such tribe, the Senones, was under the command of a Brennus, who led his Celts to the Etruscan city of Clusium about 100 miles north of Rome. It is important to note that much of the ancient source material, such as Livy, Polybius and Diodorus Siculus, is steeped in legend or, especially on the part of Livy, biased though nationalism. Whether Clusium was the target, or it simply stood in the path on the way to the more powerful city of Rome, is unclear. It is clear, however, that the Celts did approach and lay siege to Clusium and that the Etruscans there likely set aside any differences and called to Rome for help.

In response, according to the ancients, the Romans sent a delegation of three envoys to treat with Brennus. Siculus claims that the three were really spies sent to assess the strength of the Celts, but it is apparent that whatever the reason for the meeting, it escalated into violence. After exchanged insults, the Roman envoys were involved in a skirmish with the Gauls, in which one Celtic chief tan was killed. The commissioners returned to Rome without relief for Clusium and with an angry Gallic army behind them. Brennus sent his own representatives to Rome to demand the three men be turned over to him, but was predictably refused. Later that year, the angered Gauls left Clusium behind and headed for Rome to seek revenge.

The advancing Gauls invaded Roman territory and threatened the security of Rome herself. Eleven miles to the north of Rome, an outnumbered Roman army mustered under the command of A.Quintus Sulpicius, met them in July, 387 BC (the traditional date is recorded as 390 BC but the Varronian chronology is erroneous), and suffered a crushing defeat on the banks of the River Allia. As all appeared lost, some Roman defenders retreated to the Capitoline Hill to endure a siege, while civilians fled through the city gates to the city of Veii and the surrounding countryside. The Gauls poured into Rome slaughtering civilians while looting and burning everything in their path. At some point they apparently attempted an uphill attack on the heavily fortified capital, but were repulsed and never able to dislodge the occupants.

For seven months the Gauls remained and wreaked havoc around Rome. Several assaults on the Capitol all failed, and one such night attempt was even said to have been thwarted through the timely intervention of the sacred Geese of the Temple of Juno. In any event, by this point, the Roman garrison must've been getting dangerously low on supplies. The Romans engaged with Brennus for terms that would ensure that the Celts depart and Brennus apparently agreed to leave Rome for the price of 1,000 lbs. of gold. There are theories that the Celts were paying heavy tolls from disease, or that there own settlements to the north were under attack by other Italian tribes. Whatever the reason, Brennus accepted the terms and agreed to leave. The following passage from Livy, regarding these terms, leaves us with one of the most famous lines accredited to a barbarian chief in dealings with Rome.

"Quintus Sulpicius conferred with the Gallic chieftain Brennus and together they agreed upon the price, one thousand pounds' weight of gold. Insult was added to what was already sufficiently disgraceful, for the weights which the Gauls brought for weighing the metal were heavier than standard, and when the Roman commander objected the insolent barbarian flung his sword into the scale, saying 'Vae Victis-- 'Woe to the vanquished!"

With the departure of Brennus and his Gauls, many Romans wanted to abandon their city and move to the nearby city of Veii, but reverence for the gods and the divine will of Roma alleviated this concern. The Romans obviously decided to stay, and quickly rebuilt the city. One major improvement was the completion of the Servian Wall, supposedly built by the Etruscan King Servius Tullus. As a further result of the Gallic invasion, the Romans adopted new military weaponry, abandoning the Greek Phalanx style spears in favor of the gladius and modified armor. Through the resulting civil strife, the legion was reorganized, placing the youngest and strongest soldiers in the front lines, as opposed to the previous formation of order according to wealth.

The Gallic invasion left Rome weakened and also encouraged several previously subdued Italian tribes to rebel. The Etruscans, Volsci, Hernici, and Aequi were all among these numbers. One by one, over the course of the next 50 years, these tribes were defeated and brought back under Roman dominion. Meanwhile, the Celts would continue to harass the region until 345 BC, when they entered into a formal treaty with Rome. Like most others, this treaty would be short lived and the Romans and Celts would maintain an adversarial relationship for the next several centuries. The Celts would remain a threat in Italy until the final defeat of Hannibal in the 2nd Punic War. The sack of Rome would be long remembered by Romans, and would finally be avenged three and a half centuries later with Caesar's conquest of Gaul.

7# The Deadly Recurve Bow

Attila the Hun was a very famous warrior and a general of the Huns who invaded Europe, crossing and conquering the borders of the city-states one by one, leaving blood trails behind. The success of his army depended on many war weapons they have used but the most famous and deadly was the recurve bow.

These recurve bows were used as an ambush tactic of hit and run that would confused and weaken the enemy. These bows were mostly made up of bone, horn, wood, and sinew. These things were assembled in a fashion that gave much flexibility to the recurve bow that it could be bent to a higher level and would add extra force to the shooting arrow that would, in turn, easily penetrate the enemy’s armor at 100 or more yards.

These bows were small compared to European bows and could be easily used on the horseback. The recurve bows were most effective in dispersing the enemy lines and making them susceptible to close-range ambush. Once the Huns would scatter the enemies, they would kill them with sabers and spears.


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