Malanao AG-44 - History

Malanao AG-44 - History


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Malanao

A small offshore Island in the Sulu Sea, midway down the eastern coast of Palawan Island, Philippines.

(AG-44: dp. 2,273; 1. 2241; b. 40'; dr. 13'10"; s. 8 k.;
cpl. 45; a. 1311, 3 20mm.)

Malanao (AG-44) was built as 98 Paraiso by Craig Shipbuilding Co., Long Beach, Calif., In 1912 and chartered by Pacific Coast Steamship Co. of San Francisco in 1914 for merchant service along the coast of northern California and Oregon. Acquired by Long Beach Steamship Co. 27 October 1916, she was subsequently purchased by Oliver J. Olson & Co., Inc., of San Francisco 24 July 1918 and renamed 88 Florence Olson. For more than two decades she continued to serve as a west coast freighter hauling lumber and general cargo.

Florence Olson was purchased by the Navy from her owner 3 May 1942; renamed Malanao 6 May 1942; converted for Navy use by General Engineering & Drydock Co., Alameda, Calif., 23 May 1942; and commissioned 3 June 1942, Lt. Comdr. H. L. Liberg in command.

Following completion of conversion 6 July, Malanao carried a cargo of lumber to the Hawaiian Islands in August. Assigned to Service Squadron 8, Pacific Fleet Service Force, she operated during the remainder of the war among islands of the Hawaiian chain and to Islands in Polynesia and the central Pacific. Loaded with general cargo, construction equipment, and at times ammunition, in 1943 she completed 23 runs to Hawaiian ports as well as to American bases on Johnston, Palmyra, Christmas, Fanning, and Canton Islands. Shortly after the securing of Makin Island, Gilberts, 23 November 1943, she arrived there with general cargo. She maintained her busy pace of operations in 1944 and included three round trips between Hawaii and Seattle, Wash. During the first six months of 1945 she made 13 supply runs to Island bases in the Hawaiian perimeter.

Malanao reached Pearl Harbor from her final cargo ran 28 June 1945. She remained there until 28 September when she steamed to San Francisco, arriving 10 October. She decommissioned at Mare Island IS February 1946, and her name was struck from the Navy list 12 March 1946. Her hull was scrapped at Mare Island 4 June 1946.


یواس‌اس مالانو (ای‌جی-۴۴)

یواس‌اس مالانو (ای‌جی-۴۴) (به انگلیسی: USS Malanao (AG-44) ) یک کشتی بود که طول آن 224' بود. این کشتی در سال ۱۹۱۲ ساخته شد.

یواس‌اس مالانو (ای‌جی-۴۴)
پیشینه
مالک
مشخصات اصلی
وزن: 2,273 tons
درازا: 224'
پهنا: 40'
آبخور: 13' 10"
سرعت: 8 knots

این یک مقالهٔ خرد کشتی یا قایق است. می‌توانید با گسترش آن به ویکی‌پدیا کمک کنید.


Alam Mo Ba.

Ang isa pang makasaysayang pangalan ng barko ng US Navy ay ang USS Rizal (DD-174), na pinangalan sa ating pambansang bayaning si Dr. Jose Rizal. Ito ay isang Wickes-class destroyer minelayer, at ginamit noong Unang Digmaang Pandaigdigan. Unang dumating sa Pilipinas ang Rizal noong ika-1 ng Mayo, 1920 upang sumali sa Mine Detachment Division ng Asiatic Fleet. Karamihan sa mga tripolante ng Rizal ay mga Pilipino. At dahil ito ay kasali sa Asiatic Fleet ng US Navy sa loob ng sampung taon, ito ay madalas na lumalayag papunta sa iba't ibang daungan sa Asya at Dagat Pasipiko maliban sa Pilipinas gaya ng Shanghai at Hong Kong sa China, Guam sa Dagat Pasipiko at Yokohama sa Japan. Tuwing panahon ng taglamig, ang Rizal ay madalas na nakadaong sa mga Look ng Maynila at ng Olongapo.

Maliban sa mga makasaysayang mga pangalan, may isa ding barko ang US Navy na ipinangalan sa isang salitang Tagalog, ang USS Banaag (YT-104). Ito ay isa ring makasaysayang barko ng US Navy na nakadaong sa Olongapo Naval Station mula pa noong 1911. Sa kasamaang palad, ito ay winasak ng mga Hapones noong 1941, araw ng Pasko. Ngunit bago pa ito madamay sa pagbobomba ng mga Hapones sa Olongapo, nailikas na ang baril nito at nilagay sa Shanghai upang gawing kanyon.

Maliban sa mga unang nabanggit, ang mga sumusunod ay ang iba pang mga barko na ipinangalan sa iba't ibang aspetong Pinoy:


Alam Mo Ba.

Si Luzon Sukezaemon ay isang mangangalakal mula sa Sakai, Osaka, Japan. Ang tunay niyang pangalan ay Naya Sukazaemon, pinalitan niya ang kanyang pangalan noong 1593 (o 1594) matapos ang isang matagumpay na pangangalakal sa isla ng Luzon. Siya ay yumaman sa pamamagitan ng pagbebenta ng mga mamahaling banga. Ang mga bangang ito ay binabalutan ng mga sutla at ang iba ay may mga nakasulat na tula.

Marami siyang naging suki, lalo na ang mga mayayaman at makapangyarihan sa Japan. Namuhay siyang marangya nang maraming taon dahil dito. Ngunit kahit naging maganda ang takbo ng negosyo ni Sukezaemon, hindi lahat ng kanyang naging customer ay natutuwa sa kanya. Naging suki niya ang isang daimyo, si Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Ang daimyo ay isang taong namumuno sa isang partikular na teritoryo sa bansang Japan. Noong mga panahon na iyon, itinuturing si Hideyoshi bilang pinakamalakas na daimyo, at maaring siya rin ang tinuturing na pinuno ng buong Japan. Maayos naman sa simula ang mga transaksyon ni Sukezaemon at Hideyoshi. Ngunit di kalaunan, naging mapait ang kanilang pagkakalakalan.

Ang monumento ni Luzon Sukezaemon

Si Sukezaemon ay isa sa mga tanyag na miyembro ng angkan ng mga Nayashu, kabilang sina Sen Rikyu at Imai Sokyu, mga tanyag na masters of tea ceremony. Binentahan ni Sukezaemon si Hideyoshi ng kanyang nga mamahaling produkto. Ang mga ito ay dinala ni Hideyoshi sa palasyo ng Nishinomaru sa kastilyo ng Osaka at nalaman ito ng iba pang mga pinuno. Dahil doon, dumami ang mga customer ni Sukezaemon. Sumikat si Luzon Sukezaemon sa buong Japan at yumaman. Namuhay siyang parang isang daimyo na din - may sariling mga tauhan at malaking bahay. Hindi ito nagustuhan ni Hideyoshi at siya'y pinarusahan. Inakusahan ni Hideyoshi si Sukezaemon ng mga krimen na hindi niya ginawa, at siya'y napilitang tumakas. Isa-isang kinamkam ni Hideyoshi ang kanyang mga ari-arian. Ang bahay ni Sukezaemon ay hindi nakuha ni Hideyoshi sapagkat bago pa siya umalis, ito ay naibigay na niya sa templo ng Daian-ji. Si Sukezaemon ay muling nagbalik sa isla ng Luzon. Sa galit ni Hideyoshi, bilang isang diktador, pinarusahan din niya ang miyembro ng Nayashu na si Sen Rikyu.

Wala nang masyadong nakakaalam sa kung ano ang totoong nangyari kay Sukezaemon sa kanyang pagbabalik sa Pilipinas. May mga nagsasabing nagsama siya ng humigit kumulang na 100 tauhan niya upang umatake sa Kaharian ng Maynila, na nakakasakop na din sa Tondo noong panahon na yun. May mga nagsasabi naman na siya ay nakipagalyansa sa isang pirata na nagngangalang Tai Fusa, na umaatake din noon sa Kaharian ng Maynila. At may nagsasabi din namang siya'y namuhay na lang ng simple sa isla ng Luzon, hanggang sa nasakop na ang buong isla ng Espanya. Ang sigurado lang na nangyari sa kanya matapos ang kanyang pagbabalik sa isla ng Luzon, hindi na siya muling naging matagumpay na mangangalakal at siya'y muling umalis at nanirahan na lang sa Cambodia. Siya'y muling nag-negosyo ngunit hindi na siya muli pang bumalik sa Japan o sa isla ng Luzon.


Antigua’s Disputed Slave Conspiracy of 1736

Breaking on the wheel was the most horrific punishment ever visited on a convicted criminal. It was a form of crucifixion, but with several cruel refinements in its evolved form, a prisoner was strapped, spreadeagled, to a large cartwheel that was placed axle-first in the earth so that it formed a rotating platform a few feet above the ground. The wheel was then slowly rotated while an executioner methodically crushed the bones in the condemned man’s body, starting with his fingers and toes and working inexorably inward. An experienced headsman would take pride in ensuring that his victim remained conscious throughout the procedure, and when his work was done, the wheel would be hoisted upright and fixed in the soil, leaving the condemned to hang there until he died from shock and internal bleeding a few hours or a few days later.

“Breaking” was reserved for the most dangerous of criminals: traitors, mass killers and rebellious slaves whose plots threatened the lives of their masters and their masters’ families. Yet in the case of one man who endured the punishment, a slave known as Prince Klaas, doubts remain about the extent of the elaborate conspiracy he was convicted of organizing on the West Indian island of Antigua in 1736. The planters who uncovered the plot, and who executed Klaas and 87 of his fellow slaves for conceiving of it, believed it had as its object the massacre of all 3,800 whites on the island. Most historians have agreed with their verdict, but others think the panicky British rulers of the island exaggerated the dangers of a lesser plot—and a few doubt any conspiracy existed outside the minds of Antigua’s magistrates.

Prince Klaas, leader of the supposed slave rebellion on Antigua, on the wheel. (Wikimedia Commons)

In order to understand why there were slaves on Antigua in the 18th century, and why they might have wanted to revolt, it is first necessary to understand the Caribbean sugar trade. Before Columbus stumbled on the Americas in 1492, few Europeans had ever tasted sugar. The limited supply came all the way from India, and its cost was so high that even a wealthy London merchant might consume, on average, one spoonful of the stuff a year.

Spain’s discovery of the islands of the Caribbean changed all that. Conditions there proved perfect for the cultivation of sugar cane, and by the early 17th century the Spaniards and the British, Danes and Dutch were all busily cultivating cane plantations from Trinidad to Puerto Rico. Sugar ceased to be a luxury commodity–but demand soared as prices fell, leaving the new white planter class that ruled the islands among the wealthiest merchants of their day.

Antigua itself might almost have been designed for the large-scale production of sugar. Although the island is only about 12 miles across, it has a stable climate, is blessed with several excellent harbors, and lies astride reliable trade winds–which drove the windmills that processed the cane.

This illustration, taken from the abolitionist pamphlet “Description of a slave ship,” famously shows the inhuman conditions in which slaves made the voyage across the Atlantic. Confined below for fear they would rebel and seize the ship, 10 to 20 percent of a ship’s cargo of men, women and children would die in the course of a typical 50- to 60-day passage. (Wikimedia Commons)

The greatest difficulty that Antigua’s planters faced was finding men to farm their crops. Sugar cane is tough and fibrous, and requires considerable effort to cut sugar was then extracted in the inhuman conditions of “boiling houses,” where vast fires were kept roaring day and night to heat the cane and refine its juices. At first the planters depended on indentured servants brought from home on long-term contracts, but the work proved too hard for all but the most desperate, and the islands acquired a reputation as hotbeds of disease. Most poor whites found it easier to seek work in the fast-growing colonies of North America. When they left, the planters turned to their only other source of manpower: slaves.

Sugar workers on a Jamaican plantation. This photograph was taken in the mid-19th century, after emancipation, but conditions in the fields had barely changed since the days of the Antiguan slave rebellion. About half the work force in the fields was typically female. (Wikimedia Commons)

Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the slave trade produced the greatest forced migration known to history. An estimated 12 million Africans were shipped across the Atlantic, and even allowing for the two million who died en voyage, a vast number of slaves survived to reach destinations that ranged from Brazil to the colonies of North America. Four million of these men, women and children finished their journeys in the sugar islands of the Caribbean, where—thanks to the pestilential conditions—huge numbers were required to replace those who had died. It has been calculated that more than 150,000 slaves had to be landed in Barbados to produce a stable population of just 20,000: a phenomenon known to the planters as “seasoning.”

Seasoned slaves endured a monotonous diet—the staple diet of Antigua’s Africans was “loblolly,” a sort of porridge made from pounded maize—and worked six days a week. Given the heat, ceaseless labor and harsh discipline, it might be thought remarkable that the workers on the plantations did not rise more often than they did. Slaves soon made up the majority of Antiguan population󈠥 percent by 1736, when there were 24,400 of them on the island. But while sheer weight of numbers made rebellion possible, it also made the planters cautious. They formed militias, drilled regularly, and did what they could to prevent their slaves from congregating at dances and markets where talk might turn to revolt. Fear of rebellion also led to near-hysterical brutality. The least whisper of rebellion could prompt large-scale roundups, trials and executions, for it was clear that any large-scale revolt could only be fatal for the slaves’ masters.

The cane boiling house at Betty’s Hope, Antigua’s first sugar plantation, pictured in about 1910. (Wikimedia Commons)

Slave resistance did occur on Antigua. In the 17th century, before the island was properly settled, runaways formed what were known as maroon societies—villages made up of escaped slaves who concealed themselves in the wild interior around the summit of Antigua’s extinct volcano, Boggy Peak. English justice was harsh when the maroons were recaptured in a round-up ordered in 1687, one slave found guilty of “mutinous behaviour” was sentenced to be “burned to ashes,” and another, who had carried messages, had a leg sawed off. This treatment was not sufficient to dissuade others, though, and in 1701 fifteen recently arrived slaves rose against their owner, Major Samuel Martin, and hacked him to death for refusing to give them Christmas off. There was even a worryingly ritual aspect to the slaves’ revenge—they removed Martin’s head, doused it in rum, and, one contemporary reported, “Triumphed Over it.”

Next, in 1729, a plot came to light involving slaves belonging to the Antigua legislator Nathaniel Crump. Contemporary records say this conspiracy was betrayed by one of the slaves, and its intention (it was alleged in court) was to kill not only Crump and his family, but also the entire white population of the island. The judge hearing the case handed down what exemplary sentences—three of Crump’s slaves were burned alive, and a fourth was hanged, drawn and quartered. Reviewing the evidence, the court added a clear warning of more trouble ahead: “The design is laid much deeper than is yet imagined.”

Scenes of slave rebellion. Planters in Antigua knew that, in the event of a general rising, the slaves’ only hope would be to exterminate the white population and attempt to turn the entire island into a fortress, holding it against the inevitable counterattack. (Wikimedia Commons)

What followed over the next few years only increased the likelihood of further unrest. Antigua experienced a severe depression. There was also drought and, in 1735, an earthquake. Many planters responded by cutting costs, not least those involved in feeding and housing their slaves. The resultant unrest coincided with a successful slave rebellion in the Danish Virgin Islands, 200 miles to the northwest, which resulted in the massacre of the Danish garrison of St. John, the murder of many local planters (a number fled) and the establishment of slave rule in the territory for the better part of a year.

It was against this backdrop that the Antiguan slaves found a leader. The planters called him Court, a slave name that he apparently abhorred. His African name seems to have been Kwaku Takyi. Present-day Antiguans, however, know him as Prince Klaas and consider him a national hero. Having come to the island from West Africa in 1704, at age 10, Klaas became the property of a prominent plantation owner by the name of Thomas Kerby. He evidently possessed considerable presence Kerby raised him to the rank of “head slave” and brought him to live in the Antiguan capital, St. John’s.

A slave dance. This 18th century painting, by Dirk Valkenburg, shows plantation slaves participating in a traditional African dance. It was at a ceremony of this sort that Prince Klaas was acclaimed as “king” of the Antiguan slaves–and at which, according to some historians, he declared war on the island’s planters in a formal Ashanti ritual. (Wikimedia Commons)

According to David Barry Gaspar, who has written in more detail on the subject than anybody else, Klaas was one of the masterminds behind an elaborate plot, hatched late in 1735, to overthrow white rule on Antigua. The conspiracy allegedly involved slaves on a number of large plantations, and was built around an audacious effort to destroy the island’s planters in a single spectacular explosion. Taking advantage of a large ball due to be held in St. John’s in October 1736, the slaves planned to smuggle a 10-gallon barrel of gunpowder into the building and blow it up. The detonation was to be the signal for slaves on the surrounding plantations to rise, murder their masters and march on the capital from four directions. A general massacre would follow, and Prince Klaas himself would be enthroned as leader of a new black kingdom on the island.

The planters on Antigua had no difficulty believing the details of this conspiracy–which, as they themselves would have been well aware, bore a striking resemblance to the infamous Gunpowder Plot of 1605. Court records dating to the time state that the conspiracy was discovered only by chance, after the ball was postponed by nearly three weeks and several slaves who knew of the plan could not resist hinting that things were about to change. Their “insolence” increased “to a very Dangerous Pitch,” Justice of the Peace Roberth Arbuthnot observed a British constable reported that when he had tried to break up a crowd of slaves, one had shouted to him: “Damn you, boy, it’s your turn now, but it will be mine by and by, and soon too!”

Arbuthnot was sufficiently alarmed to make inquiries, which soon turned into a full-blown criminal investigation. One slave gave sufficient details for him to begin making arrests, and under interrogation (and occasionally torture), a total of 32 slaves confessed to having some stake in the scheme. In all, 132 were convicted of participating in it. Of this number, five, including Klaas, were broken on the wheel. six were gibbeted (hung in irons until they died of hunger and thirst) and 77 others were burned at the stake.

The planter’s nightmare, an armed slave, was a potent figure of menace the governments of several Caribbean islands have been accused of seeing slave rebellions where there were none. (Wikimedia Commons)

In the eyes of the Antiguan government, Prince Klaas’s planned rebellion was well evidenced. A stream of witnesses testified that the plot existed Klaas himself, together with his chief lieutenant—a creole (that is, a slave born on the island) known as Tomboy, whose job it would have been to plant the powder—eventually confessed to it. Events on the Danish island of St. John showed that slaves were capable of executing conspiracies, and there were other parallels as well. In Barbados, in 1675 and in 1692, the authorities uncovered plots to massacre the white community that had apparently been kept secret for as long as three years. In each of these cases, the leaders of the planned rebellions were said to have been “Coromantees“—slaves from what is now Ghana, the same part of West Africa from which Prince Klaas had come.

Klaas is a figure of compelling interest to historians. Gaspar and others argue that his influence over his fellow slaves went further than the Antiguan planters of the day realized, since, according to the official report on the planned uprising, “it was fully proved that he had for many Years covertly assumed among his Countrymen, the Title of King, and had been by them address’d, and treated as such.” They further identify him as an Ashanti, a member of a tribal confederation renowned for discipline and courage, not to mention abundant use of human sacrifice.

The most intriguing evidence relating to Prince Klaas concerns a public ceremony held a week before the planned rebellion. In the course of this ritual, Gaspar says, Klaas was enthroned by an “obey man”—an obeah-man, that is a priest, shaman or sorcerer who practiced the West African folk religion known as voodoo or santería. In other Caribbean risings, it was the obeah-man who administered oaths of loyalty to would-be rebels with a mixture made of gunpowder, grave dirt and cock’s blood strong belief in his supernatural powers helped cement loyalty. Michael Craton is not alone in arguing that the ceremony Antigua’s obeah-man presided over was actually a war dance,

“set up by Tackey and Tomboy ‘in Mrs Dunbar Parkes’ Pasture, near the Town,’ viewed by many unsuspecting whites and creole slaves… as simply a picturesque entertainment. But for many slaves it held a binding significance, for it was an authentic Ikem dance performed by an Ashanti king in front of his captains once he had decided on war.

An American slave displays the marks of severe lashing, one of the punishments most commonly used in the sugar plantations of Antigua. (Wikimedia Commons)

Other evidence that Prince Klaas was really planning an uprising comes from Arbuthnot’s inquiry, which concluded that there had been warning signs of rebellion. Slaves had been seen congregating after midnight and heard blowing conch shells to announce their meetings. Yet —confessions aside—little physical evidence of a conspiracy was ever produced. The 󈫺-gallon barrel of powder” that Tomboy was to have used to blow up the ball was not recovered nor, despite extensive searches, were any weapons caches found.

All this has led researchers such as Jason Sharples and Kwasi Konadu to direct renewed attention to the slaves’ own testimonies. And here, it must be acknowledged, there is good reason to doubt that the confessions obtained by Arbuthnot were wholly reliable. Konadu persuasively argues that Klaas’s “dance” was probably a familiar Ashanti ceremony acclaiming a newly chosen leader, and not a declaration of war. Sharples demonstrates that Arbuthnot’s prisoners would have found it easy to exchange information and discuss what the captors wished to hear, and adds that they must have known that a confession—and the betrayal of as many of their fellow Africans as possible—was their one hope of saving themselves. He also supplies an especially revealing detail: that one slave, known as “Langford’s Billy,” who “escaped with his life by furnishing evidence against at least fourteen suspects” and was merely banished in consequence, turned up in New York four years later, heavily implicated in another suspected slave plot that many researchers now concede was merely a product of hysteria. Thrown into prison, Billy confided to a fellow inmate that he “understood these affairs very well” as a result of his experiences on Antigua, and that “unless he…did confess and bring in two or three, he would either be hanged or burnt.” He even offered, Sharples says, likely names “as proper ones to be accused.”

Thomas Johnson–born into slavery in the United States in 1836, emancipated in the wake of the Civil War, and author of Twenty-Eight Years a Slave (1909)–displays some of the whips, shackles and restraints used to control and discipline slaves both in the U.S. and the Caribbean. (Wikimedia Commons)

The verdict thus remains in balance. Large-scale slave rebellions did take place in the Caribbean, and plantation slaves were capable of forming elaborate plans and keeping them secret. Yet, as Jerome Handler argues in the case of the supposed Barbados plots, there is also evidence that frightened British overstated the threats they faced perhaps Prince Klaas planned something serious, but short of the extermination of all the planters of Antigua.

Finally, it is also worth remembering a point well-made by Michael Johnson, who a decade ago published an influential article arguing that another renowned African “conspiracy”—the uprising supposedly planned by Denmark Vesey in Charleston in 1822–was probably the product of white panic, duress and leading questions. Johnson showed that the very hideousness of slavery predisposes historians to search for evidence of slave conspiracies after all, who would not have tried to rebel against such injustice and cruelty? To find no evidence of black resistance might lead some to conclude that the slaves lacked courage, rather than—as is the fairer verdict—that they had little hope, and were viciously repressed.

Whatever the truth of the Antiguan rebellion, change was slow to come to the island. Measures were put in place to prevent the free association of slaves, but there was also a slow Christianization of the black population, with most of the work was done by the Moravians, who numbered nearly 6,000 converts by 1785. By 1798, local laws allowed “unrestrained” worship on Sundays.

August 1, 1834–Emancipation Day–is celebrated in Antigua. (Wikimedia Commons)

Uniquely among the isles of the West Indies, Antigua emancipated all its slaves at the first opportunity the entire plantation workforce of 32,000 souls was freed at midnight on August 1, 1834 the earliest date mandated by Britain’s act of emancipation. “Some timorous planter families,” noted James Thome and Horace Kimball, two abolitionists who made a six month “emancipation tour” of the West Indies at the behest of the American Anti-Slavery Society, “did not go to bed on emancipation night, fearing lest the same bell which sounded freedom of the slaves might bring the death knell of their masters.” But others greeted their former slave the next morning, “shook hands with them, and exchanged the most hearty wishes.”

The slaves faced an uncertain future–competing now with whites and with one another for work, and no longer guaranteed any sort of care in their old age. But no trouble of any sort occurred. “There was no frolicking,” Thome and Kimball reported rather “nearly all the people went to church to ‘tank God to make a we free! There was more “religious” on dat day dan you can tink of!’ ” And the Antiguan writer Desmond Nicholson puts it this way: “When the clock began to strike midnight, the people of Antigua were slaves…when it ceased, they were all freemen! There had never been in the history of the world so great and instantaneous a change in the condition of so large a body of people. Freedom was like passing suddenly out of a dungeon into the light of the sun.”

Michael Craton. Testing the Chains: Resistance to Slavery in the British West Indies. Ithaca : Cornell University Press, 2009 David Eltis and David Richardson. Atlas of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010 David Barry Gaspar. “The Antigua slave conspiracy of 1736: a case study in the origins of resistance.” The William and Mary Quarterly 35:2 (1978) David Barry Gaspar. “‘A mockery of freedom’: the status of freedmen in Antigua society before 1760.” In Nieuwe West-Indische Gids 56 (1982) David Barry Gaspar. Bondmen and Rebels: A Study of Master-Slave Relations in Antigua. Durham : Duke University Press, 1993 Jerome Handler. “Slave revolts and conspiracies in seventeenth century Barbados.” In Nieuwe West-Indische Gids 56 (1982) Michael Johnson. “Denmark Vesey and his co-conspirators.” In The William and Mary Quarterly, 58:4 (2001) Herbert S. Klein and Ben Vinson III. African Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007 Kwasi Konadu. The Akan Diaspora in the Americas. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010 Russell Menard. “Plantation empire: how sugar and tobacco planters built their industries and raised an empire.” In Agricultural History 81:3 (2007) Desmond Nicholson. Africans to Antiguans: The Slavery Experience. A Historical Index. St John’s, Antigua: Museum of Antigua and Barbuda Jason Sharples. “Hearing whispers, casting shadows: Jailhouse conversation and the production of knowledge during the Antigua slave conspiracy investigation of 1736.” In Michele Lise Tarter and Richard Bell (ads). Buried Lives: Incarcerated in Early America. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2012.


Alam Mo Ba.

Ang isa pang makasaysayang pangalan ng barko ng US Navy ay ang USS Rizal (DD-174), na pinangalan sa ating pambansang bayaning si Dr. Jose Rizal. Ito ay isang Wickes-class destroyer minelayer, at ginamit noong Unang Digmaang Pandaigdigan. Unang dumating sa Pilipinas ang Rizal noong ika-1 ng Mayo, 1920 upang sumali sa Mine Detachment Division ng Asiatic Fleet. Karamihan sa mga tripolante ng Rizal ay mga Pilipino. At dahil ito ay kasali sa Asiatic Fleet ng US Navy sa loob ng sampung taon, ito ay madalas na lumalayag papunta sa iba't ibang daungan sa Asya at Dagat Pasipiko maliban sa Pilipinas gaya ng Shanghai at Hong Kong sa China, Guam sa Dagat Pasipiko at Yokohama sa Japan. Tuwing panahon ng taglamig, ang Rizal ay madalas na nakadaong sa mga Look ng Maynila at ng Olongapo.

Maliban sa mga makasaysayang mga pangalan, may isa ding barko ang US Navy na ipinangalan sa isang salitang Tagalog, ang USS Banaag (YT-104). Ito ay isa ring makasaysayang barko ng US Navy na nakadaong sa Olongapo Naval Station mula pa noong 1911. Sa kasamaang palad, ito ay winasak ng mga Hapones noong 1941, araw ng Pasko. Ngunit bago pa ito madamay sa pagbobomba ng mga Hapones sa Olongapo, nailikas na ang baril nito at nilagay sa Shanghai upang gawing kanyon.

Maliban sa mga unang nabanggit, ang mga sumusunod ay ang iba pang mga barko na ipinangalan sa iba't ibang aspetong Pinoy:


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Class A Uniform Inspection

Belt: worn with slacks so that tipped end passes through the buckle but no fabric can be seen.

Necktie: males will wear four-in-hand tie no shorter than 2″ above belt or longer than bottom of belt buckle also required for long sleeve shirt tie tack/clasp optional

Necktab: females will wear necktab with class A uniform and when long sleeve shirt is worn alone

Males: Leather (patent leather), oxford style, with 3 eyelets

Low quarters: Leather (patent leather), oxford style, with 3 eyelets, heel no greater than 2″

Pumps: Leather (patent leather), closed toe and heel, heel ½” to 3″, sole less than ½”

Males: worn on right breast pocket, centered left to right and between the top of the button and the top of the pocket

Females: 1-2″ above the top button, centered horizontally on wearer’s right side

Males: 1″ above notch, centered so that centerline is parallel to inside edge of lapel

Female: 5/8″ from the notch, centered between collar and lapel seam, centerline parallel to inside edge of lapel

Distinctive shoulder insignia: centered on shoulder loop, equidistant from shoulder seam to outside edge of button, with base towards shoulder seam

Regimental distinctive Insignia:

Males: 1/8″ above top of right breast pocket, ¼” above unit awards (if worn)

Females: ½” above nametape, ½” above unit awards (if worn)

Rank: Specialists and below will were non-subdued rank, centered on the collar 1″ from the point with the centerline bisecting the collar point

Service Ribbons: worn in order of precedence from left to right in one or more rows with no more than four in a row and either no space or 1/8″ between rows.

Males: centered 1/8″ above left breast pocket

Females: center on wearer’s left with bottom row parallel to the bottom of the nameplate

Unit Awards: worn with laurel leaves facing upward on wearer’s right side

Males: centered 1/8″ above right breast pocket flap

Females: centered ½” above nameplate

Devices (Appurtenances): affixed to service ribbons to denote additional awards, participation in an event, or a unique characteristic of the award

Oak Leaf Cluster: denotes succeeding awards

“V” Device: indicates act of heroism while in conflict

Numerals: in lieu of OLC, indicates succeeding awards

Clasps: for Good Conduct Medal, denote subsequent awards

Service Stars: to denote additional award or service in a named campaign

Arrowhead: indicates participation in a combat parachute jump, combat glider landing, or amphibious assault landing while performing a tactical mission

Ribbons in order of Precedence

Badges: worn in order of precedence right to left with specialty badges worn first

Males: centered 1/8″ below top of pocket 1″ apart if there is more than one

Females: centered ¼” below ribbons 1″ apart if there is more than one

Make sure uniform is cleaned and pressed

Make necessary changes to ensure proper fit

Ensure all brass is polished and free of fingerprints

Make sure shoes are serviceable and polished

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This is an offer for educational opportunities that may lead to employment and not an offer for nor a guarantee of employment. Students should consult with a representative from the school they select to learn more about career opportunities in that field. Program outcomes vary according to each institution’s specific program curriculum. Financial aid may be available to those who qualify. The financial aid information on this site is for informational and research purposes only and is not an assurance of financial aid.

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Our Core Doctrines

iVALUE is a special emphasis on the &lsquoFour Core Beliefs&rsquo of the Assemblies of God: Salvation, Baptism in the Holy Spirit, Divine Healing and the Second Coming of Christ.

Two years after its founding, the AG established 16 doctrines as a standard to reach, preach and teach its people. These doctrines became our Statement of Fundamental Truths. Four of these truths are considered our core beliefs due to the key role they play in reaching the lost and building the believer and the church both now and for the future.

iVALUE offers resources to help pastors, leaders and laity refocus on these important truths that are ever so foundational to our core beliefs as Christians. The many resources available on this Web site will help you better understand the critical importance of each core doctrine and provide tools to equip you to teach and share these doctrines with your church and friends.

Featuring teachings by four of the church&rsquos top officers, this site offers video teaching, round table discussions, testimonies, small group outlines, teaching outlines, video and audio sermon links, sermon outlines, articles, paintings and more.

&ldquoThe term iVALUE is more than a name. It&rsquos truly the way I feel about these ever-so-important truths. I want to embrace and value them personally in my heart and to flesh them out as priorities in my life. Won&rsquot you join me in reaching and teaching those in your church and community? Together we can impact the world and change lives for eternity.&rdquo


Military History

Military history is a vast topic since warfare has been a constant aspect of the general flow of history. Military history also has great depth. You can make a lifelong study of just one battle or item of military equipment. Many people find military history to be fascinating with a lot of satisfaction derived from understanding what happened and why.

Olive-Drab.com military history is organized into these sections:

  • World War II: Huge section with narrative of the war, description of campaigns and battles, leaders, maps, and links to web resources.
  • Unit Histories: History, unit associations, reunions, locators, current events.
  • General Military History Web Resources: Compilations, repositories, links, directories.
  • Ships and Naval History: Web sites for ships and the history of sea warfare.
  • Korean War Web Resources: Resources specific to the Korean War.
  • Vietnam War History: Large section with a narrative of the Vietnam War's battles and campaigns, the political backdrop, covering all aspects of the longest U.S. war.
  • Recent Conflicts: Gulf War and other recent conflicts.
  • Museums: Pages describing military museums and their collections.
  • Sites and Tours: Actual battlefields and ways to get there.
  • Reenactment: Groups who keep the history alive.
  • Magazines, Journals, Periodicals: History available by subscription.
  • Military Books: Every military subject area.

Click on the list item to go there directly.

Within Olive-Drab.com there are many other areas with historical information and there is a lot of overlap with other topics. For an example, check out Origin of the Military Jeep in the Military Vehicles section. So make sure you review the Military Organizations page and the Military Books page along with this page and the other major pages on Olive-Drab.com. Also try Olive-Drab.com Search to look for other references to your topic. Search is available at the top right of every page Olive-Drab.com or on the Directory.

The Society for Military History is devoted to stimulating and advancing the study of military history. Its membership (today about 2000) has included many of the nation's most prominent scholars, soldiers, and citizens interested in military history.

Another Olive-Drab.com resource you should look at is the compilation of sources for military photographs. History comes alive when you can see it and Olive-Drab.com lists the best places on the web to find historical photos as well as recent material. Here is one example:


L-R: Joseph H. Eastman, James A. Meissner, Edward "Eddie" Vernon Rickenbacker, Reed Chambers, and Thorne C. Taylor stand beside the plane of famed American "Ace of Aces" and Medal of Honor winner Captain Rickenbacker. The SPAD XIII.C.1 was powered by a 220 hp Hispano-Suiza engine capable of a top speed in level flight of 131 mph. At the 94th Pursuit Squadron ("Hat in the Ring") of the American Expeditionary Force, France 1917-1918.


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