Tulsa PG-22 - History

Tulsa PG-22 - History


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Tulsa

(PG-22: dp. 1,760 (f.); 1. 241'2"; b. 41'2"; dr. 12'8"; s. 12.0 k., cpl. 169; a. 3 4", 2 3-pdrs.; cl.Asheville)

Tulsa (PG-22) was laid down on 9 December 1919 at Charleston, S.C., by the Charleston Navy Yard launched on 25 August 1922, sponsored by Miss Dorothy V. McBirney, and commissioned there on 3 December 1923, Lt. Comdr. Robert M. Doyle, Jr., in temporary command. Lt. Doyle assumed his regular duties as executive officer on 14 December 1923 when Comdr. MacGillivray Milne assumed command.

The patrol gunboat cleared Charleston on 19 January 1924, bound for the Caribbean to join the Special Service Squadron. She called at Key West, Fla., on 22 January, before proceeding to Baytown, Tex., where she took on fuel four days later.

The ship spent the next five years on station in Central American waters, "showing the flag" and calling at such places as Tuxpan and Vera Cruz, Mexico

Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; and at ports in Puerto Rico and the Canal Zone. In between cruises with the Special Service Squadron, she returned to Boston, Mass., for yard repair work.

When civil strife broke out in Nicaragua in the late 1920's, details of marines and bluejackets from Tulsa landed to protect lives and preserve property. When not engaged in these duties, the patrol gunboat conducted routine training exercises in waters near the Panama Canal Zone and visited ports in Honduras

En route for the west coast late in 1928, Tulsa transited the Panama Canal as she prepared for duty in the Far East. She departed San Francisco, Calif., on 24 January 1929, called at Honolulu and Guam, and proceeded to Manila.

Designated flagship of the South China Patrol on 1 April 1929, Tulsa operated out of Hong Kong, British Crown Colony; and Canton, China, for cruises up the Pearl River and along the south China coast. At Canton in May 1929, she witnessed the bombing of Chinese naval vessels by airplanes of the opposing faction in a Chinese civil war flaring at the time.

Relieved in June by Mindanao (PR-8) as flagship of the South China Patrol, she steamed up the coast to Shanghai, beginning a two-week deployment with the Yangtze Patrol in which she cruised as far upriver as Hankow. Assigned new duties as station ship at Tientsin in north China, Tulsa headed north in July 1929 to serve as a mobile source of information for the Commander in Chief, Asiatic Fleet (CINCAF).

She continued under the direct operational control of CINCAF into the 1930's, being later reassigned to the South China Patrol and observing conditions along

the south China coast during the period following the outbreak of the undeclared Sino-Japanese war in July 1937. As tensions increased in the Orient in 1940 and 1941, Admiral Thomas C. Hart, CINCAF, incrementally reduced the Asiatic Fleet's presence in Chinese waters. Withdrawn to the Philippines in May 1941, Tulsa joined the Inshore Patrol, guarding the sea approaches to Manila Bay.

On 10 December 1941, two days after the outbreak of war in the Philippines, a heavy Japanese air attack devastated Cavite, the base of the Asiatic Fleet, near Manila. Standing in from the Corregidor minefields, Tulsa anchored off the burning base as the last Japanese planes departed. She called away all of her boats and sent fire and rescue parties ashore to bring off what wounded could be rescued from the holocaust. At 1900, she recalled all hands that were ashore, and within hours, Tulsa, Asheville (PG-21), Lark (AM21), and Whippoorwill (AM 36) retired toward Balikpapan, Borneo.

After a brief stay at that port, she called at Makassar before receiving orders to proceed to Surabaya, Java, in the Netherlands East Indies, where she spent Christmas. Then, steaming independently, she cruised to Tjilatjap, on the south coast of Java, where her landing force began to receive training in jungle warfare. The plan to use Tulsa's bluejackets as infantry in a last-ditch defense of Java never progressed beyond the initial training stage, and her erstwhile ground troops returned to the ship as she was being outfitted to become a convoy escort vessel.

Equipped with a home-made depth charge rack constructed by the ship's crew, Tulsa now boasted an antisubmarine capacity and began escorting merchantmen along the south coast of Java to Tjilatjap, the only port on the island still out of reach of Japanese bombers. While engaged on convoy duty in late February, Tulsa received orders to proceed to a point 300 miles to the south of Java. En route, she learned that her mission included searching for survivors of Langleg (AV-3), sunk on 26 February 1942. When she arrived at the scene, however, she found only traces of wreckage, but no survivors. Unbeknownst to Tulsa, Langleg's survivors had already been rescued by Whipple (DD-217) and Edsall (DD-219).

After this apparently fruitless rescue attempt, Tulsa came upon the scene of the sinking of British merchant ship City of Manchester. Whippoorwill already had begun rescue operations, yet needed medical facilities which Tulsa had on board. The gunboat hove to and assisted the minesweeper in the lifesaving, then returned to Tjilatjap where she awaited instructions, ready for sea at a moment's notice.

With Java being rapidly encircled by the onrushing Japanese, orders to retire were not long in coming. On 1 March 1942. Tulsa, Asheville, Lark, and Isabel (PY10) crept out of Tjilatjap, bound for Australia. While the other three ships steamed resolutely onward, Ash~ ash~ville soon developed engine difficulties and fell behind, only to be trapped and sunk by superior Japanese surface forces.

Tulsa and her two companions arrived in Australian waters shortly thereafter. They were the last surface ships of the Asiatic Fleet to survive the Japanese onslaught in the East Indies, and they escaped, by a hairsbreadth, the fate which befell Asheville.

For the seven months following her arrival in Fremantle, she engaged in routine patrols off the Australian coast before being refitted at Sydney in October 1942. Here, she received British ASDIC, degaussing equipment, Y-guns, and 20 millimeter Oerlikons. Thus outfitted, she served once again as a convoy escort, occasionally towing targets as well.

In the latter half of 1942, she was attached to Submarine Forces, Snuthwest Pacific, and operated independently out of Brisbane as a target for the submarines out of Fremantle. She then gave submariners practice in making approaches and battle surfacing.

With the beginning of the Buna-Gona offensives in New Guinea, Tulsa escorted PT boats to take part in that campaign and operated between Milne Bay, New Guinea, and Cairns, Australia. When the PT boat base at Kona Kope, on the southeastern shores of Milne Bay was established in November 1942, Tulsa brought in much-needed equipment to aid in the operations being conducted from that base. But five days before Christmas 1942, Tulea grounded on an uncharted pinnacle and damaged her ASDIC gear, necessitating a return to yard facilities for repairs.

Soon returning to the war zone, she resumed patrols off Milne Bay. On the night of 20 January 1943, six Japanese bombers attacked the ship. In the short sharp action which followed, Tulsa put up a spirited defense with her 3-inch and 20 millimeter antiaircraft battery, driving off the attackers with no damage to herself, while dodging 12 bombs.

For the remainder of 1943, she continued operating in the New Guinea Australian area, tending PT boats, escorting supply ships, and serving as flagship of the 7th Fleet. On one occasion while serving as a PT boat tender, Tulsa towed PT-109, later commanded by Lt. (jg.) John F. Kennedy, USNR, future President of the United States.

After a major overhaul in December 1943, she resumed operations in the Milne Bay-Cape Cretin area. She departed the bay on 8 January 1944, with a fuel barge in tow, en route to Cape Cretin. There, she joined HMAS Arunta, USS LST-45S, and SS Mulera, to serve as headquarters ship for Capt. Bern C. Anderson, Commander, Task Unit 76.5.3.

Under the control of Commander, Escorts and Minecraft Squadrons, 7th Fleet, she served in the Finschhafen-Buna area and participated in the Hollandia strike on 26 April 1944 and the Wake landing on 17 May. She then continued in her role of escort vessel and patrol craft in the New Guinea-Australia area before proceeding to the Philippines in November 1944.

Returning to the scene of her hurried departure nearly four years before, Tulsa continued operations with the 7th Fleet in the Philippines. On 18 December 1944, she was renamed Tacloban, after a town on the island of Leyte, where American forces had landed a scant two months earlier.

As the United States Navy swept northward towards the Japanese home islands, and fierce fighting ensued on Okinawa and Iwo Jima, Tacloban performed the necessary tasks of convoy escort and local patrol vessel at fleet anchorages. On 26 August 1945, she was detached from duty with the Local Defense force, Maeajalar Bay, on the northwestern coast of Mindanao and sent to Leyte. Arriving a week later, she received orders to accompany Ingham (WPG-35) and LCI-280 to Buckner Bay, Okinawa.

On 7 September, en route to her destination, Tacloban was slowed by an overheated bearing, and her speed dropped to 3.1 knots. Left to proceed in company with LCI-280, Tacloban limped into Buckner Bay on 13 September. Task force 74, to which she had been attached, sailed for Shanghai, China, two days later, but Tacloban, an "Old China Hand," could not make the trip and remained at Buckner Bay.

Following voyage repairs, she continued across the Pacific and arrived at Pearl Harbor on 18 December 1945. Thirteen days later, she headed for the California coast and arrived at San Francisco, Calif., on 10 January 1946.

Aged and worn, she was decommissioned on 6 March 1946, struck from the Navy list on 17 April; and turned over to the War Shipping Administration, Maritime Commission, on 12 October 1946, for disposal.

Tulsa received two battle stars for her World War II service.

On 27 November 1944, the name Tulsa was assigned to CA-129, an Oregon City class heavy cruiser to be built at Quincy, Mass., by the Bethlehem Steel Company's Fore River Plant. However, on 12 August 1945 —before the ship's keel had been laid-the contract for her construction was cancelled.


USS Tulsa (PG-22)

USS Tulsa (PG-22), nicknamed the Galloping Ghost of the South China Coast, [1] was an Asheville (PG-21)-class gunboat of the United States Navy that was in commission from 1923 to 1946. She was named after the city of Tulsa, Oklahoma, and the county seat of Tulsa County. Tulsa was laid down on 9 December 1919 at the Charleston Navy Yard launched on 25 August 1922 sponsored by Miss Dorothy V. McBirney [lower-alpha 1] and commissioned there on 3 December 1923, Lieutenant Commander Robert M. Doyle, Jr., in temporary command. Lt. Cdr. Doyle assumed his regular duties as executive officer on 14 December 1923 when Commander MacGillivray Milne assumed command.


USS Tulsa (PG-22)


Figure 1: USS Tulsa (PG-22) at Hong Kong, April 1941. US Navy Photograph. Click on photograph for larger image.


Figure 2: US Navy photograph of USS Tulsa (PG-22) from the 1924 edition of Jane's Fighting Ships. Click on photograph for larger image.


Figure 3: US Navy photograph of USS Tulsa (PG-22) on 1 September 1938 after an overhaul. Click on photograph for larger image.


Figure 4: US Navy photograph of USS Tulsa (PG-22) during World War II. Click on photograph for larger image.

USS Tulsa (PG-22) was a 1,760-ton Asheville class steel gunboat that was built in the Charleston Navy Yard at Charleston, South Carolina, and was commissioned on 3 December 1923. She was an improved Sacramento class gunboat and was the sole sister ship to Asheville, the lead ship in the class. Tulsa was approximately 241 feet long and 41 feet wide, had a top speed of 12 knots, and had a crew of 159 officers and men. The gunboat was armed with three 4-inch guns and two 3-pounders.

On 19 January 1924, Tulsa left Charleston and steamed to the Caribbean to join the Special Service Squadron. The ship spent the next five years patrolling the waters of Central America and the Caribbean, from Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, to Panama and Nicaragua. In the late 1920s, sailors and Marines from Tulsa landed in Nicaragua to protect American lives and property. She also participated in naval training exercises off Panama and visited ports in Honduras. In 1928, Tulsa transited the Panama Canal and headed for the west coast. On 24 January 1929, Tulsa left San Francisco, California, and headed for her new assignment in the Far East.

Tulsa initially was based in Manila, the Philippines, but then on 1 April 1929 she became the flagship of the South China Patrol and moved to Hong Kong. Tulsa was assigned patrol duties up the Pearl River and along the south China coast. Tulsa was relieved in these duties by the gunboat Mindanao (PR-8) in June 1929 and then sailed to Shanghai and eventually continued upriver to Hankow. Tulsa was made station ship at Tientsin in north China in July.

Throughout the 1930s, Tulsa returned to the South China Patrol and observed much of the fighting during the Sino-Japanese War in July 1937. As tensions mounted between the United States and Japan in the Pacific, Admiral Thomas C. Hart, Commander-in-Chief of the Asiatic Fleet (CINCAF), began withdrawing American warships from China and moved them to the relative “safety” of the Philippines. As a result of this new policy, Tulsa arrived at the US naval base at Cavite, the Philippines, in May 1941 and was attached to the Inshore Patrol, which was assigned the task of guarding Manila Bay. On 10 December 1941, shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese aircraft mounted an enormous attack on Cavite. To escape the devastation, Tulsa anchored off shore, away from the burning naval base, and used her small boats to send crewmembers ashore to fight the raging fires and to rescue injured naval personnel. Later that day, Tulsa was ordered to retreat to Balikpapan, Borneo, along with her sister ship Asheville (PG-21) and the minesweepers Lark (AM-21) and Whippoorwill (AM-35).

Shortly after reaching Balikpapan, Tulsa proceeded to Surabaya, Java, in the Netherlands East Indies. She then went on to Tjilatjap, located on the southern coast of Java, where her crew constructed an improvised depth-charge rack for the ship, giving the gunboat a modicum of anti-submarine capability. Tulsa now escorted merchant ships along the coast of Java, even though she was woefully ill-equipped for this task. On 26 February 1942, Tulsa participated in the search for survivors from the sunken American aircraft carrier Langley (AV-3) and, although she did not find any, the gunboat encountered a sinking British merchant ship, City of Manchester. Tulsa took on survivors and some of them were brought to the ship’s sick bay, where they received medical attention. After the rescue operation was completed, Tulsa returned to Tjilatjap.

As the military situation deteriorated in Java and the Japanese were about to take the island, what was left of the once-proud US Asiatic Fleet was ordered to leave. On 1 March 1942, Tulsa, Asheville, Lark, and the gunboat Isabel (PY-10) left Tjilatjap and steamed towards Australia. Unfortunately, Asheville developed engine trouble and fell behind and later was sunk by Japanese warships. By sheer luck, the other three ships avoided both Japanese aircraft and naval vessels and made it to Australia.

Tulsa was based at Fremantle, Australia, and for the next seven months was assigned patrol duties off the Australian coast. In October 1942, she underwent a major overhaul in Sydney and was equipped with British ASDIC sonar, degaussing equipment, Y-guns, and 20-mm cannons. Once the overhaul was completed, Tulsa again was used as a convoy escort. But towards the end of 1942, she briefly was assigned to Submarine Forces, Southwest Pacific, and used as a practice target for Allied submarines based at Fremantle. Tulsa would conduct naval exercises with the submarines, enabling them to practice surface and subsurface attacks on the gunboat. In November 1942, Tulsa was sent to New Guinea, where she assisted American PT boats at their base at Kona Kope, on the southeastern shore of Milne Bay. But on 20 December 1942, Tulsa struck an uncharted submerged pinnacle and had to return to Australia for repairs.

Once repairs were completed, Tulsa returned to Milne Bay and resumed her patrol duties. On the night of 20 January 1943, six Japanese aircraft attacked the ship. Fortunately, Tulsa’s gunners were able to prevent the Japanese from scoring any hits, even though 12 bombs were dropped on the ship. For the rest of 1943, Tulsa served in New Guinea, tending PT boats, escorting supply ships, and serving as the flagship for the Seventh Fleet. On one occasion, while serving as a PT boat tender, Tulsa towed PT-109, which was later commanded by John F. Kennedy, the future president of the United States.

Tulsa underwent another major overhaul in December 1943 and then was sent back to Milne Bay. She served as the flagship for Captain Bern C. Anderson, Commander, Task Force 76.5.3 and also participated in the assault on Hollandia on 26 April 1944 and on Wakde Island on 17 May. After that, she was used as an escort and patrol craft in the New Guinea/Australia area of operations before being transferred to the Philippines in November 1944.

While in the Philippines, Tulsa remained with the Seventh Fleet. On 18 December 1944, the old gunboat was renamed Tacloban, after a town on the island of Leyte, so that her old name could be used for a new heavy cruiser that was being built back in the United States. Tacloban continued her convoy escort and patrol duties in the Philippines until early September 1945, when she was ordered to escort two ships to Okinawa. But on 7 September 1945, while steaming towards Okinawa, Tacloban had a major engine malfunction and was barely able to make it to the island under her own power. Once repairs were made at Okinawa, Tacloban was ordered to steam back to the United States. She reached Pearl Harbor on 18 December 1945 and San Francisco on 10 January 1946. The Navy determined that it had no further use for this old warship, so she was decommissioned on 6 March 1946. On 12 October 1946, Tacloban, formerly USS Tulsa, was sold for scrapping.


The Architects of Greenwood

A black-and-white photograph of the Greenwood district in Tulsa, Oklahoma, before 1921. Depicted are storefronts, telephone wires and a sign for a dentist&aposs office.

Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of the Families of Anita Williams Christopher and David Owen Williams

A wealthy Black landowner named O.W. Gurley is commonly referred to as the founder of Greenwood. Born to freed slaves in Alabama, Gurley was raised in Arkansas, and moved to Oklahoma during the Oklahoma Land Rush of 1889. After running a general store in Perry, Oklahoma, Gurley, a serial entrepreneur, moved to oil-rich Tulsa, and reportedly purchased 40 acres of land on the north side of the city with the vision of selling residential and commercial plots to African Americans. Gurley wasted no time, opening a rooming house, purchasing buildings and providing loans to help other Black people start their own businesses.

And another entrepreneur shared Gurley’s dream of Greenwood becoming a self-reliant enclave for Black Tulsans.

J.B. Stradford, son of a former enslaved man, was a lawyer from Kentucky who owned pool halls, shoeshine parlors and boarding houses, before moving to Tulsa around 1899, with the goal of creating wealth in Indian Territory. Stradford invested in real estate properties and built the Stradford Hotel on Greenwood Avenue, a luxury establishment that was considered the largest Black-owned hotel in the country, with 54 guest suites, a pool hall, saloon and dining room.


Tulsa PG-22 - History

The USS Tulsa (PG-22) was laid down in 1919 at Charleston, South Carolina. A patrol gunboat, the ship was assigned to the Special Service Squadron in the Caribbean. Small and nimble, the vessel was suited for "showing the flag" yet large enough to deter civil unrest or to rescue American citizens. When civil strife broke out in Nicaragua in the late 1920s, Tulsa was called upon to protect American lives and property.

In late 1928 the Tulsa joined the U.S. Asiatic Fleet. In April 1929 the ship was designated the flagship of the South China Patrol and operated out of Hong Kong, British Crown Colony, and Canton, China. A river patrol gunboat, Tulsa made cruises up the Pearl River and along the south China coast and offered sanctuary to American citizens during civil unrest in Chinese seaports. Next, the Tulsa deployed with the Yangtze River Patrol. Assigned as the station ship at Tientsin, China, the ship resumed duties as a scout and communications vessel for the commander-in-chief of the Asiatic Fleet. Later reassigned to the South China Patrol, Tulsa was present during the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937. Tulsa was next ordered to Manila, Philippines, joining the Inshore Patrol.

On December 10, 1941, the Japanese attacked the U.S. naval base at Cavite, Philippines. The Tulsa sent rescue parties ashore to extinguish fires and assist the wounded. Next ordered toward the oil fields near Java, Tulsa operated independently along the south Java coast. Ordered to Australia when Java became untenable, the ship performed routine patrols. Refitted with antisubmarine equipment, Tulsa operated as an antisubmarine ship attached to Submarine Forces, Southwest Australia.

Following an overhaul in December 1943 the Tulsa participated in the Hollandia strike on April 26, 1944, and the Wakde Island landing on May 17, both in New Guinea. Ordered to the Philippines in November 1944, Tulsa assisted with the retaking of the islands from Japanese forces. Renamed the Tacloban in December 1944, at war's end the ship departed the Far East and arrived at San Francisco in early 1946. Due to the ship's material condition it was decommissioned on March 6, 1946, and was struck from the Navy list.

Bibliography

John Costello, The Pacific War (New York: Rawson, Wade Publishers, 1981).

Department of Naval History, "The U.S.S. Tulsa, 1919–1945," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 55 (Fall 1977).

Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, Vol. 7 (Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Center, 1981).

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C. P. Neimeyer, &ldquoUSS Tulsa,&rdquo The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, https://www.okhistory.org/publications/enc/entry.php?entry=US005.

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Tulsa race massacre of 1921

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Tulsa race massacre of 1921, also called Tulsa race riot of 1921, one of the most severe incidents of racial violence in U.S. history. It occurred in Tulsa, Oklahoma, beginning on May 31, 1921, and lasting for two days. The massacre left somewhere between 30 and 300 people dead, mostly African Americans, and destroyed Tulsa’s prosperous Black neighbourhood of Greenwood, known as the “Black Wall Street.” More than 1,400 homes and businesses were burned, and nearly 10,000 people were left homeless. Despite its severity and destructiveness, the Tulsa race massacre was barely mentioned in history books until the late 1990s, when a state commission was formed to document the incident.

On May 30, 1921, Dick Rowland, a young African American shoe shiner, was accused of assaulting a white elevator operator named Sarah Page in the elevator of a building in downtown Tulsa. The next day the Tulsa Tribune printed a story saying that Rowland had tried to rape Page, with an accompanying editorial stating that a lynching was planned for that night. That evening mobs of both African Americans and whites descended on the courthouse where Rowland was being held. When a confrontation between an armed African American man, there to protect Rowland, and a white protester resulted in the death of the latter, the white mob was incensed, and the Tulsa massacre was thus ignited.

Over the next two days, mobs of white people looted and set fire to African American businesses and homes throughout the city. Many of the mob members were recently returned World War I veterans trained in the use of firearms and are said to have shot African Americans on sight. Some survivors even claimed that people in airplanes dropped incendiary bombs.

When the massacre ended on June 1, the official death toll was recorded at 10 whites and 26 African Americans, though many experts now believe at least 300 people were killed. Shortly after the massacre there was a brief official inquiry, but documents related to the massacre disappeared soon afterward. The event never received widespread attention and was long noticeably absent from the history books used to teach Oklahoma schoolchildren.

In 1997 a Tulsa Race Riot Commission was formed by the state of Oklahoma to investigate the massacre and formally document the incident. Members of the commission gathered accounts of survivors who were still alive, documents from individuals who witnessed the massacre but had since died, and other historical evidence. Scholars used the accounts of witnesses and ground-piercing radar to locate a potential mass grave just outside Tulsa’s Oaklawn Cemetery, suggesting the death toll may be much higher than the original records indicate. In its preliminary recommendations, the commission suggested that the state of Oklahoma pay $33 million in restitution, some of it to the 121 surviving victims who had been located. However, no legislative action was ever taken on the recommendation, and the commission had no power to force legislation. The commission’s final report was published on February 28, 2001. In April 2002 a private religious charity, the Tulsa Metropolitan Ministry, paid a total of $28,000 to the survivors, a little more than $200 each, using funds raised from private donations.

In 2010 John Hope Franklin Reconciliation Park was opened in the Greenwood District to memorialize the massacre. Named for historian and civil rights advocate John Hope Franklin, whose father survived the massacre, the park features the Tower of Reconciliation, a 25-foot- (7.5-metre-) tall sculpture that commemorates African American struggle. Greenwood Rising, a history centre honouring Black Wall Street, memorializing the victims of the massacre, and telling its story, was established in 2021 by the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Centennial Commission, founded in 2015.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Jeff Wallenfeldt, Manager, Geography and History.


Contents

Early years

The patrol gunboat cleared Charleston on 19 January 1924, bound for the Caribbean to join the Special Service Squadron. She called at Key West, Florida, on 22 January, before proceeding to Baytown, Texas, where she took on fuel four days later.

The ship spent the next five years on station in Central American waters, "showing the flag" and calling at such places as Tuxpan and Vera Cruz, Mexico Guantanamo Bay, Cuba and at ports in Puerto Rico and the Canal Zone. In between cruises with the Special Service Squadron, she returned to Boston, Massachusetts, for yard repair work.

When civil strife broke out in Nicaragua in the late 1920s, details of marines and bluejackets from Tulsa landed to protect lives and preserve property. When not engaged in these duties, the patrol gunboat conducted routine training exercises in waters near the Panama Canal Zone and visited ports in Honduras.

En route for the west coast late in 1928, Tulsa transited the Panama Canal as she prepared for duty in the Far East. She departed San Francisco, California, on 24 January 1929, called at Honolulu and Guam, and proceeded to Manila.

Designated flagship of the South China Patrol on 1 April 1929, Tulsa operated out of Hong Kong, British Crown Colony and Guangzhou, China, for cruises up the Pearl River and along the south China coast. At Guangzhou in May 1929, she witnessed the bombing of Chinese naval vessels by airplanes of the opposing faction in a Chinese civil war flaring at the time.

Relieved in June by USS Mindanao (PR-8) as flagship of the South China Patrol, she steamed up the coast to Shanghai, beginning a two-week deployment with the Yangtze Patrol in which she cruised as far upriver as Hankou. Assigned new duties as station ship at Tientsin in north China, Tulsa headed north in July 1929 to serve as a mobile source of information for the Commander in Chief, Asiatic Fleet (CINCAF).

She continued under the direct operational control of CINCAF into the 1930s, being later reassigned to the South China Patrol and observing conditions along the south China coast during the period following the outbreak of the undeclared Sino-Japanese war in July 1937. As tensions increased in the Orient in 1940 and 1941, Admiral Thomas C. Hart, CINCAF, incrementally reduced the Asiatic Fleet's presence in Chinese waters. Withdrawn to the Philippines in May 1941, Tulsa joined the Inshore Patrol, guarding the sea approaches to Manila Bay.

World War II

On 10 December 1941, two days after the outbreak of war in the Philippines, a heavy Japanese air attack devastated Cavite, the base of the Asiatic Fleet, near Manila. Standing in from the Corregidor minefields, Tulsa anchored off the burning base as the last Japanese planes departed. She called away all of her boats and sent fire and rescue parties ashore to bring off what wounded could be rescued from the holocaust. At 19:00, she recalled all hands that were ashore and, within hours, Tulsa, USS Asheville (PG-21), USS Lark (AM-21), and USS Whippoorwill (AM-35) retired toward Balikpapan, Borneo.

After a brief stay at that port, she called at Makassar before receiving orders to proceed to Surabaya, Java, in the Netherlands East Indies, where she spent Christmas. Then, steaming independently, she cruised to Tjilatjap, on the south coast of Java, where her landing force began to receive training in jungle warfare. The plan to use Tulsa's bluejackets as infantry in a last-ditch defense of Java never progressed beyond the initial training stage, and her erstwhile ground troops returned to the ship as she was being outfitted to become a convoy escort vessel.

Equipped with a home-made depth charge rack constructed by the ship's crew, Tulsa now boasted an antisubmarine capacity and began escorting merchantmen along the south coast of Java to Tjilatjap, the only port on the island still out of reach of Japanese bombers. While engaged on convoy duty in late February, Tulsa received orders to proceed to a point 300 miles to the south of Java. En route, she learned that her mission included searching for survivors of USS Langley (AV-3), sunk on 26 February 1942. When she arrived at the scene, however, she found only traces of wreckage, but no survivors. Unbeknownst to Tulsa, Langley’s survivors had already been rescued by USS Whipple (DD-217) and USS Edsall (DD-219).

After this apparently fruitless rescue attempt, Tulsa came upon the scene of the sinking of British merchant ship City of Manchester. Whippoorwill already had begun rescue operations, yet needed medical facilities which Tulsa had on board. The gunboat hove to and assisted the minesweeper in the lifesaving, then returned to Tjilatjap where she awaited instructions, ready for sea at a moment's notice.

With Java being rapidly encircled by the onrushing Japanese, orders to retire were not long in coming. On 1 March 1942. Tulsa, Asheville, Lark, and USS Isabel (PY-10) crept out of Tjilatjap, bound for Australia. While the other three ships steamed resolutely onward, Asheville soon developed engine difficulties and fell behind, only to be trapped and sunk by superior Japanese surface forces.

Tulsa and her two companions arrived in Australian waters shortly thereafter. They were the last surface ships of the Asiatic Fleet to survive the Japanese onslaught in the East Indies and they escaped, by a hairsbreadth, the fate which befell Asheville.

For the seven months following her arrival in Fremantle, she engaged in routine patrols off the Australian coast before being refitted at Sydney in October 1942. Here, she received British ASDIC, degaussing equipment, Y-guns, and 20 mm Oerlikons. Thus outfitted, she served once again as a convoy escort, occasionally towing targets as well.

In the latter half of 1942, she was attached to Submarine Forces, Southwest Pacific, and operated independently out of Brisbane as a target for the submarines out of Fremantle. She then gave submariners practice in making approaches and battle surfacing. With the beginning of the Buna-Gona offensives in New Guinea, Tulsa escorted PT boats to take part in that campaign and operated between Milne Bay, New Guinea, and Cairns, Australia. When the PT boat base at Kona Kope, on the southeastern shores of Milne Bay, was established in November 1942, Tulsa brought in much-needed equipment to aid in the operations being-conducted from that base. But five days before Christmas 1942, Tulsa grounded on an uncharted pinnacle and damaged her ASDIC gear, necessitating a return to yard facilities for repairs.

Soon returning to the war zone, she resumed patrols off Milne Bay. On the night of 20 January 1943, six Japanese bombers attacked the ship. In the short, sharp action which followed, Tulsa put up a spirited defense with her 3-inch and 20 mm antiaircraft battery, driving off the attackers with no damage to herself, while dodging 12 bombs.

For the remainder of 1943, she continued operating in the New Guinea-Australian area, tending PT boats, escorting supply ships, and serving as flagship of the 7th Fleet. On one occasion while serving as a PT boat tender, Tulsa towed PT-109, later commanded by Lt. (jg.) John F. Kennedy, USNR, future President of the United States.

After a major overhaul in December 1943, she resumed operations in the Milne Bay-Cape Cretin area. She departed the bay on 8 January 1944, with a fuel barge in tow, en route to Cape Cretin. There, she joined HMAS Arunta (I30), USS LST-453, and SS Mulcra, to serve as headquarters ship for Capt. Bern C. Anderson, Commander, Task Unit 76.5.3.

Under the control of Commander, Escorts and Mine-craft Squadrons, 7th Fleet, she served in the Finschafen-Buna area and participated in the Hollandia strike on 26 April 1944 and the Wakde landing on 17 May. She then continued in her role of escort vessel and patrol craft in the New Guinea-Australia area before proceeding to the Philippines in November 1944.

Returning to the scene of her hurried departure nearly four years before, Tulsa continued operations with the 7th Fleet in the Philippines. On 18 December 1944, she was renamed Tacloban, after a town on the island of Leyte, where American forces had landed a scant two months earlier, freeing the name Tulsa to be used for the planned USS Tulsa (CA-129).

As the United States Navy swept northward towards the Japanese home islands, and fierce fighting ensued on Okinawa and Iwo Jima, Tacloban performed the necessary tasks of convoy escort and local patrol vessel at fleet anchorages. On 26 August 1945, she was detached from duty with the Local Defense Force, Macajalar Bay, on the northwestern coast of Mindanao, and sent to Leyte. Arriving a week later, she received orders to accompany USCGC Ingham (WPG-35) and LCI-230 to Buckner Bay, Okinawa.

On 7 September, en route to her destination, Tacloban was slowed by an overheated bearing, and her speed dropped to 3.1 knots. Left to proceed in company with LCI-230, Tacloban limped into Buckner Bay on 13 September. Task Force 74, to which she had been attached, sailed for Shanghai, China, two days later but Tacloban, an "Old China Hand," could not make the trip and remained at Buckner Bay.

Following voyage repairs, she continued across the Pacific and arrived at Pearl Harbor on 18 December 1945. Thirteen days later, she headed for the California coast and arrived at San Francisco, on 10 January 1946.

Aged and worn, she was decommissioned on 6 March 1946 struck from the Navy list on 17 April and turned over to the War Shipping Administration, Maritime Commission, on 12 October 1946, for disposal.


TULSA LCS 16

This section lists the names and designations that the ship had during its lifetime. The list is in chronological order.

    Independence Class Littoral Combat Ship
    Naming Ceremony 6 June 2013
    Keel Laid 11 January 2016 - Christened 11 February 2017
    Launched 16 March 2017

Naval Covers

This section lists active links to the pages displaying covers associated with the ship. There should be a separate set of pages for each name of the ship (for example, Bushnell AG-32 / Sumner AGS-5 are different names for the same ship so there should be one set of pages for Bushnell and one set for Sumner). Covers should be presented in chronological order (or as best as can be determined).

Since a ship may have many covers, they may be split among many pages so it doesn't take forever for the pages to load. Each page link should be accompanied by a date range for covers on that page.

Postmarks

This section lists examples of the postmarks used by the ship. There should be a separate set of postmarks for each name and/or commissioning period. Within each set, the postmarks should be listed in order of their classification type. If more than one postmark has the same classification, then they should be further sorted by date of earliest known usage.

A postmark should not be included unless accompanied by a close-up image and/or an image of a cover showing that postmark. Date ranges MUST be based ONLY ON COVERS IN THE MUSEUM and are expected to change as more covers are added.
 
>>> If you have a better example for any of the postmarks, please feel free to replace the existing example.


Rivals

Tulsa’s primary basketball rival is Oral Roberts, which is located in southern Tulsa. The teams began play in 1974 and currently play annually. Tulsa hired Bill Self away from Oral Roberts in 1997.

Tulsa’s other rivalries have not had the intensity as that with Oral Roberts. While in the Missouri Valley Conference, the Golden Hurricane had an extensive rivalry with Wichita State ⎢] that has largely faded since Tulsa left the conference. The team has also had longstanding competitions against Oklahoma, Oklahoma State, and Arkansas. The rivalry with Arkansas was enhanced with their hiring of Nolan Richardson away from Tulsa in 1985. Tulsa had an intense rivalry with Fresno State and Hawaii while a member of the Western Athletic Conference. Southern Methodist remains a fairly interesting rivalry, given that the two schools sometimes recruit similar players and that current Southern Methodist coach Matt Doherty was considered a front-runner for the Tulsa job prior to Doug Wojcik taking the helm likewise, Doug Wojcik once interviewed for the Southern Methodist job.

With Tulsa’s move to Conference USA, it is hoped that a restoration of the Golden Hurricane program could form a natural rivalry with Memphis and UAB for dominance in the conference. ⎡]


New Oklahoma Law Sparks Debate Over Teaching About Tulsa Massacre

Tawnell D. Hobbs

TULSA, Okla.—For decades, Oklahoma students weren’t required to learn about the Tulsa Race Massacre in school, in what the city’s school superintendent called a “conspiracy of silence.”

Now some residents and educators worry that a new state law could derail progress in teaching about the tragedy, in which white mobs burned much of the Black community of Greenwood to the ground a century ago, leaving as many as 300 people dead.

The law, signed by Republican Gov. Kevin Stitt on May 7, restricts public-school teachers and employees from using lessons that make an individual “feel discomfort, guilt, anguish or any other form of psychological distress on account of his or her race or sex.”

Days later, Gov. Stitt was ousted from the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Centennial Commission, which said his action was contrary to the group’s mission. The commission called his approval of the legislation “a sad day and a stain on Oklahoma.”

Similar legislation designed to counter moves by school districts to focus lessons on race or systemic racism has been passed in Idaho and Tennessee and is being considered in at least a dozen other states. Some of the Republican-backed legislation specifically bans a decades-old teaching method called “critical race theory,” which addresses the way racism is embedded in laws and society.

Educators have been more focused on race and racial inequities after a year of civil unrest following police killings of Black people. In April, the U.S. Department of Education outlined its proposed priorities for grants for American history and civics education, with applicants asked in part to indicate how they would take into account “systemic marginalization, biases, inequities, and discriminatory policy and practice in American history.”

Some Oklahomans criticized Mr. Stitt’s timing in signing the bill into law just weeks before the 100-year anniversary of the massacre on Monday. Opponents say that while the law doesn’t forbid teaching students about the massacre, it is an attempt to stifle lessons that deal with unpleasant aspects of history.

“This is a way to keep the history of Tulsa in the dark, in the closet,” said Jennettie Marshall of the Tulsa school board. “It has been a dirty little secret.”

The Oklahoma Council of Public Affairs, a conservative think tank, applauded the legislation. “From a government perspective, should taxpayers be required to pay the salaries of government employees to teach that whites are inherently racist or inherently privileged? I think the answer would be no,” said Jonathan Small, president of the group.

Oklahoma Gov. Kevin Stitt was ousted from the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Centennial Commission after he signed a bill that critics say will discourage lessons on the history of the tragedy.

Some educators said that teaching about the massacre in Oklahoma schools has gotten better in recent years. In 2019, state academic standards required for the first time that Oklahoma history classes include in-depth lessons on the massacre, including the “emergence of ‘Black Wall Street’ in the Greenwood District” and the “causes of the Tulsa Race Riot and its continued social and economic impact.” The standards also include an opportunity to introduce the massacre in broader terms to second-grade students, but it isn’t required.

“I did not learn about the Tulsa race massacre until I was an adult,” said Joy Hofmeister, Oklahoma’s education chief, who grew up in Tulsa. She supports more detailed lessons about the massacre: “We have to face the historic events of that time and learn critical lessons from that.”

Oklahoma Sen. Rob Standridge, a Republican and co-author of his state’s bill, warned parents about school lessons in a statement. “I encourage every parent to make certain their schools aren’t making some students feel that, solely based on the color of their skin, they are naturally racist, they are inferior or superior,” said Mr. Standridge.

James Taylor teaches seventh grade in Oklahoma City and said the new law addresses those who cross the line. “It doesn’t say you can’t talk about racism you just can’t say all white people are racist,” said Dr. Taylor.

Some teacher groups are concerned that the law puts their members in a difficult position. “Our teachers are mostly worried about what will happen to them legally with their job, or legally with themselves, in a civil lawsuit if they teach anything related to diversity or race,” said Torie Shoecraft, president of the Oklahoma City American Federation of Teachers, which has about 1,500 members.

Students in a physical education class at Booker T. Washington High School in Tulsa, May 14. This month, Tulsa Public Schools rolled out a new curriculum to teach about the 1921 massacre.

Stefanie Wager, president of the National Council for the Social Studies, an association of about 10,000 teachers and other social studies professionals, questioned how states will monitor educators for compliance with the new laws focused on race, especially as interest grows in teaching on the subject.

Todd Gragg is a teacher for Seminole Public Schools, a small district about an hour from Oklahoma City. He said that while he has concerns about how the law might affect teaching about the massacre and racism in his Advanced Placement U.S. history and government classes starting in the fall, he plans to do so anyway.

“Are we going to run from the truth or be willing to teach it openly in the classroom?” said Mr. Gragg. “The reality is there is structural racism. We can’t deny that it exists.”

Research shows that U.S. history classes from kindergarten to 12th grade devoted about 9% of their time to Black history in 2015—and not much has changed since then, said LaGarrett King, an associate professor of social studies education at the University of Missouri. Part of the issue is that while teachers have been willing to teach Black history, some don’t know it themselves. “The average teacher means well,” Dr. King said. “But there is a lack of knowledge. A lot of these teachers were educated in the same system they are educating in.”

Booker T. Washington High School was founded in 1913 as Tulsa’s first high school for Black students.

Oklahoma school districts are weighing in on the new state law. The school board of Oklahoma City Public Schools, the state’s largest district, approved a resolution denouncing the legislation. Tulsa Public Schools, the state’s second-largest district, said the law has no implications for how it teaches about the massacre. Tulsa officials rolled out a new curriculum on the massacre this month for grades three through 12.

“This is history that is painful, but our approach is firmly grounded in the belief that one human being isn’t ‘worth’ more than another,” the Tulsa district said in a statement.

Mr. Stitt has said the Tulsa Race Massacre can be taught under the new law, which he noted doesn’t prohibit teaching concepts aligned with state academic standards. The law also forbids state colleges and universities from requiring students to engage in any form of mandatory “gender or sexual diversity training or counseling.”

But the centennial commission, which removed Mr. Stitt as a member, said in a statement that while the law doesn’t preclude teaching about the Tulsa Race Massacre, it clearly intends to limit teaching the racial implications of America’s history.

SHARE YOUR THOUGHTS

When did you first learn about the Tulsa Race Massacre? Join the conversation below.

After the legislation was signed, the commission invited the governor to attend a special meeting to discuss the bill. Mr. Stitt didn’t show up or reply to the invitation, the commission noted in a May 11 letter to the governor. The letter said he could contact the group for discussion, but not doing so would indicate further disavowal of its goals and an official resignation. On May 12, the commission met and decided to part ways with Mr. Stitt, according to a statement from the group.

Mr. Stitt said in a statement that his role on the commission was ceremonial and accused the group of sowing division based on falsehoods.

Despite the tension over the law, some parents are looking forward to their children learning about the massacre. Tulsa parent Michelle Lamb gave her 10-year-old daughter, Annette, a lesson on the massacre a few days before she was to start learning about it in school. The mother and daughter spent time earlier this month reading placards embedded in sidewalks on Greenwood Avenue, which show where businesses stood before the massacre, whether the owner died and if the business reopened.

“I can try to teach her, but it’s best to show her,” Ms. Lamb said.

The Tulsa Massacre | 100 Years Later

The Wall Street Journal explores the legacy of the Tulsa Race Massacre and its economic reverberations, piecing together a story of both resilience and loss.


Watch the video: Why isnt THIS on the NEWS


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